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Living Flame

Help you grow closer to God and become more Holy,
by Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza, OCD, M.A. PhD.

Passion (Palm) Sunday - YEAR A  Mt 21.1-11; Is 50.4-7; Phil 2.6-11, Mt 26.14-27;66

Congratulations
Congratulations dear Christians, Congrats, you are well appreciated, well accepted, you are sociable, you celebrate life, you run good institutions, schools, colleges, you are good at speaking good English, good at learning languages, but I am just warning you, you are not people of deep God-experience. One Hindu addressing Christians told this on a Centenary Celebration day. "I say I love you, but I am not convinced fully that you carry your cross." He ended his reflection.

Our Celebrations
Look at the life of Jesus, fully equipped with humility and surrender to accept God's will. The son of man must suffer. The son of man came to give life and not to take it. The son of man came to lay down his life. There is no greater love than laying down one's life for friends. I want Christ for working miracles.

But I am not ready to carry my daily cross. He worked miracles, but he also strongly invited his disciples to carry their daily cross. We want Christ, but not his cross. We want a cross, but not a crucifix.

The Triumph
This event of Palm Sunday constitutes the one earthly triumph of Jesus' life and ministry. The crowd was following him because of the great miracle he had wrought in raising Lazarus from the dead. The sisters from Bethany and Lazarus were apparently well known. As the crowd grew in numbers, Jesus sensed that the Father was asking him to acquiesce to this acclamation. He sent ahead for a beast of burden. For the first time, as far as we know, he mounted. He was thus slightly above the crowd so that all could see him. The people started pulling down branches from the trees and throwing them in front of him. Their enthusiasm became contagious. The whole city was plunged into excitement. The crowd was waving palms, singing and proclaiming him to be the son of David, the king of Israel of times past and the father of the Messiah. The words clearly implied a divine visitation. That is why the Pharisees demanded, "Stop your disciples from crying out. They are making you equal to God." He replied, "If they are quiet, the stones will cry out." All creation was bearing witness to the coming to final term of the life of him who is the source of all that is.

Entry into Jerusalem
The thunderous shouts and applause of the immense crowd form the background for Jesus' amazing entry into Jerusalem. When he came to the brow of the Mount of Olives, the procession stopped and Jesus wept over Jerusalem. He wept because the city could not perceive the great opportunity that it was about to lose. He was fully aware that the authorities were plotting his death and that the adulation he was receiving would soon turn to condemnation. The superficial enthusiasm of the crowd had a hollow ring.

Jesus Wept
Nothing could be worse public relations than to have the celebrity of the moment burst into tears, especially when you are trying to turn him into a king or a god. Jesus wept because of, the deep tragedy that only he had eyes to perceive. "Jerusalem" he sobbed, "if only you had known the time of your visitation. Now it is too late." Thus, the city that he loved so much was fated to undergo total destruction. It did not know the time of its divine visitation.

Jesus is the paradigm of humanity, the universal human being, God's idea of human nature with its enormous potentialities. According to the great hymn of Paul to God's humility, the divine Person of the Word, source of everything that exists, did not cling to his divine dignity or prerogatives, but threw them all away. In God there seems to be the need not to be God. In creating, God, in a sense dies, because he is no longer alone; he is completely involved in the evolution of these creatures whom he has made so lovable.

God with Us
Christ emptied himself of the divine power that could have protected him and opened himself in total vulnerability as he stretched out his arms on the cross to embrace all human suffering. In the most real sense, we too are the body of God; we too are a new humanity in which the Word becomes flesh; we too can put ourselves in the service of the divine Word. Then God is experiencing human life through our senses, our emotions, and our thoughts. Each of us can give the eternal Word a new way in which he discovers his own infinite potentiality. Thus, God knows himself in us and experiences the human condition in all its ramifications. The Word lives in us, or more exactly, lives us. We are incorporated into the new creation that Christ has brought into the world by becoming a human being. We leave behind the false self and solidarity with Adam, which is solidarity in sin, death, and human misery Jesus invites us to experience his consciousness of the Father, the Abba of infinite concern, the God who transcends both suffering and joy and manifests equally in both.

Practical Conclusion
Christ on the donkey, waving aside the cheers of the crowd, is riding to his death. This is his way of revealing the heart of God once and for all in such a way that no one can ever doubt God's infinite mercy. The priest says over the bread and wine, "This is my Body " The power of those words extends to each of us as Christ awakens and celebrates his great sacrifice in our own hearts saying, "You are my body. You are my blood." You, with all of humanity, are a manifestation in the flesh of the new creation. Palm Sunday is a day of great awakening that the Lord Jesus came to redeem us and lead us to Eternal Jerusalem. We all will be triumphant with Him in the New Jerusalem.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

5th Sunday Of Lent - YEAR A  Ez 37.12-4; Rm 8.8-11; Jn 11.1-45

More Alive than Before
D.L. Moody was often heard to say during the closing days of his life, "Some fine morning, you will read in the newspapers that D.L. Moody is dead. But do not believe it, for I shall be more alive that morning than ever before!" If you have Christ in your life as your personal Saviour, you will be like D.L. Moody. If you do not know Christ, all you have to look forward to is fear and despair. If we believe in Jesus all that we experienced in the past three weeks will be an experience that has enhanced our life with Jesus.

A Strange Response

Here is the scene, the picture. Lazarus died in the town of Bethany, which is a village just east of Jerusalem. Jesus was not there, but was over in the town of Perea, which is over on the other side of the Jordan River, quite a long distance away. Perea is near where John the Baptist ministered (John 10.40-42). It is a long, hot, and dusty walk from there to where Lazarus died.

The Purpose

When Jesus heard the news that his friend was sick, his response was very unusual. Jesus said, "Lazarus's sickness will not end in death. No, it is for the glory of God." That answer sounds cold and harsh, and not at all sympathetic. How could God get glory from Lazarus being sick? Here are several possible answers to this.

The Miracle

Jesus knew He was going to raise Lazarus from the dead and that people would glorify God when it happened since only God can raise the dead.

A Walking Advertisement

There are no words of Lazarus recorded in the Bible, but his whole life was a message after his resurrection. In fact, after he was brought back to life by Jesus we find the chief priests plotting to kill Jesus because so many Jews became believers in Jesus on account of Lazarus (Jn 12.10-11). Lazarus was a walking advertisement, a walking sign, that Jesus is God. When the established religion feels threatened, they believe they must kill the new religion...even when the established religion is a false religion.

Glorifying God

Jesus told his disciples that he was glad he had not been present when Lazarus died. Jesus said this so they would get a chance to witness the resurrection and increase their own faith. Jesus let his disciples go through difficult things in order to stretch and build their faith. Donald Gray Barnhouse once wrote, "I believe that God does this with everyone, with all of us all the time." To teach us to trust Him, God puts us in a difficult spot. When God wants us to trust Him greatly, He puts us in an impossible spot. Think about that!

The Friends of Lazarus

Many of Mary and Martha's friends came to console them in the loss of their brother. So Jesus knew that there would be a large number of people witnessing the miracle and that they would bring glory to God - and that many of them would be drawn to Jesus as a result of what they saw. Lives are often changed through the experience of another person's death, and Jesus knew that would happen here.

The Glory of the Cross

In John 17.1 and 17.5, Jesus referred to the cross as His "Glorification". Just days after Lazarus' death and resurrection came His own death and resurrection. Jesus knew that what He was about to do for Lazarus would cause the Pharisees to put Him to death. His death would ultimately bring salvation to the world, and so in an indirect way, Lazarus' death leads to God's glory, by leading to the death of Christ.

The Delay

Jesus started by saying something unusual to the disciples and then continued by doing something unusual when he postponed His visit to see about his friend Lazarus' condition. John says that Jesus loved Martha, Mary, and Lazarus, yet he stayed two more days in Perea without going to Bethany. No priest friend today would be able to get away with that!
When there is a crisis and the priest is called to offer support, there is no way he could wait two days and then show up at the hospital. Yet somehow Jesus did not go to be with his friend, even though Jesus loved Lazarus and the family.

The reason, of course, was that Jesus knew what He was going to do when He did arrive. By postponing an immediate answer to their need of the family, Jesus was able to arrange an even greater demonstration of His love.

Think about this. Sometimes the love of God is delayed for our own ultimate benefit. First, delays in expressions of God's love can allow time for us to think things through more clearly. For example, we have asked God for something and the answer is delayed. Then we have time to reflect on the situation and by doing this we can gain more understanding and a more clear way to proceed.

Second, delays can help confirm our faith. It is easy to trust the Lord when we have everything we need. But when God's answer is delayed it causes our faith to be stretched - and that is a good thing.

The Jews in the time of Jesus had a tradition, a belief that at death a person's spirit remained close to the body for two days; after that it left. Jesus may have been allowing that two-day period to pass so there would be no question about Lazarus' death. There is no Biblical support for that belief, of course. But perhaps Jesus did not want superstition or tradition to get in the way of what He was planning to do.

The Pronouncement

Another strange turn of events happened when Jesus tries to explain it to the disciples. He says, "Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but now I will go and wake him up." The disciples were worried about Jesus going near Jerusalem since the Jews wanted to persecute Him.

They thought Lazarus would be fine by himself if he was just sleeping, so why risk a confrontation with the Jews? But then, after a discussion, Jesus puts it to them plainly. "Lazarus is dead." He wanted the disciples to see the resurrection (vs 15) so off the Bethany they went.

A Sorrowful Response

In the middle section of this story, we see Jesus' strange response to death replaced by a sorrowful response.

The Sorrow of the Sisters

Mary and Martha have very different personalities, and you can see that here as well as in Luke 10.38-42. Mary is relaxed, Martha is consumed with concern. She is nervous about everything. Martha accuses Jesus of letting Lazarus die needlessly - she says that if Jesus had come earlier He could have healed him before he died. But Jesus tells her that Lazarus will live. Martha then goes to call Mary, who has been waiting in their house. When Mary came to where Jesus was, she said the same thing Martha did - that Lazarus would not have died if Jesus had come sooner. Mary is sounding like Martha, and Martha is sounding like Mary. The two sisters were consumed with grief, and they are very upset and confused as to why Jesus had not come sooner to care for their brother. They say that Jesus has let them down. Many people today say the same thing...That they called on Jesus but He did not do things the way they wanted Him to, so they were no longer going to believe in Him ...You have probably talked to people like that. As Mary and Martha said, and as many people today say, there would be no grief if Jesus would just come when I call Him. He should do what I tell Him to do.

He Wept

Now, the next thing that follows right after the sister's grief, is a scene that can touch our hearts in a special way. What is it? Well, it is the sorrow of the Saviour. Jesus experienced sorrow, which is a very human feeling. One translation says that Jesus "groaned in the spirit". This means He was deeply troubled. He was agitated, which is to say he shook with emotion. This is a picture of Jesus feeling intensely sorrowful because of the grief of Lazarus' family and friends. It was their grief that prompted His own.

And verse 35 shows in the most direct way possible the sorrow Jesus felt over the whole situation. "Jesus wept". Literally, the test implies that Jesus burst into tears. He identified with the loss of His friends and their extended family. The New Testament says we are to weep with those who weep (Rm 12.15), and bear one another's burdens (Gal 6.2). Suffering of our own helps us identify with the suffering of others, which is another reason not to resist the troubles God brings into your life.

Jesus is called "the suffering Servant" because He had a heart easily broken by the needs of other people.

A Supernatural Response

When Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead, Jesus displayed both that He was human and that He was God. His humanity was shown in His having the same emotion that His friends had. But He does some more human things. You see, He does things that any human could do, right up to the time He gets to the point where human power stopped. Jesus approaches the scene like you or I would. First, He tells the bystanders to take away the stone covering the tomb. Could He have moved it with a wave of His hand? Yes, but He did not. He does the same thing when He instructs those standing by to take the grave clothes off of Lazarus. Could He have raised Lazarus right through the grave clothes? Yes, but He didn't. You see, Jesus' miracles are never flashy or showy. They are always easy for us to understand.

In this Gospel, we learn that Jesus does not do for us what we can do for ourselves, but He does do for us what we cannot do for ourselves.

So let us look for a moment at Martha, who is always the person who is concerned with details. Martha steps in to warn Jesus that there will be a stink if they take away the stone. She tells Jesus that Lazarus has been dead for four days. How often do we give God advice about things which He has exhaustive knowledge about? If we would just obey Him it would demonstrate greater faith than when we remind Him of this or that.

Martha has no idea what Jesus is doing. She probably thought Jesus just wanted to see His friend Lazarus one last time. In that sense, warning Him about the smell and condition of the body makes some sense. But she should have known by this time to trust Jesus and wait to see what He had in mind. Especially since Jesus tells her it is the glory of God that is about to be revealed (vs 40). In any event, Jesus tells the people to move the stone and they did.

Next, Jesus stands before the opened tomb and called Lazarus from death back to life. "Lazarus come out". And the once-dead friend of Jesus walked out of the tomb. Some Bible scholars say that if Jesus had not mentioned Lazarus by name, all the people in the tomb would have come out!

This was a very great miracle - the miracle of resurrection. We know that in the time of Lazarus, dead people were "mummified". That means that he was wrapped in strips of linen cloth all around his body, with embalming spices being enclosed within the wraps of the cloth. The body would be placed in the tomb on a shelf along with others buried in the same tomb. Lazarus would not even be able to see since his head was also covered with cloth wrapping. He somehow made it outside of the tomb still wrapped in the grave clothes - at this point Jesus gave instructions to unwrap him and "let him go".

Someone once said two of the greatest things God gives Christians to do are:

To remove the stones from in front of the grave, and
To remove the grave clothes from those resurrected from death to new life.

Remove the Stone and Grave Clothes

Removing the stones is a symbolic way of saying to remove the obstacles to a person's faith. For example, answering their questions, being their friend, and in all ways smoothing their path to Jesus.

And removing the grave clothes is helping that person; our friend or our family-member; to take off their old person and put on the new. God gives the new life, but our part is to help them as they move from spiritual death to spiritual life.

Practical Conclusion

Before closing our homily on the miracle of Lazarus' resurrection, we need to look again at the part of this miracle that spans the centuries to our time today. This message is as valuable to us today as it was to those people standing right there and who saw Lazarus walk out of the grave. In verses 25 and 26, Jesus said.

I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in Me, though they die like everyone else, will live again. They are given eternal life for believing in me and will never perish. Do you believe this?

Jesus originally asked that question to Martha. But right now, He is asking you the same question. This is the most important question in the Bible. It is the most important question you will ever be asked. It is true that we will die a physical death, but Jesus is talking about spiritual life and death. You will die physically, but if you believe in Jesus you will never die spiritually. You will live forever in heaven with Jesus.

If you have read this story and you want to live forever, then right now ask Jesus to come into your life; tell Him that you have sinned, and are sorry for your sins. In the best way you know how, ask Jesus to come into your life and give you the free gift of eternal life.

The miracle that will happen in your life is the greatest miracle of all...you will move from death to life, and you will be "born again in spirit" into eternal life with God. If you have never trusted Jesus, you can do it today.

Today's Gospel reading sends out two messages to those who hear it. First of all, through our living faith in Jesus, all our physical bodies will be raised in the final resurrection. Secondly, especially now with the approaching of Easter Sunday, we are called to symbolically resurrect from sin to grace by partaking in the Sacrament of Confession to cleanse our souls so they may be pleasing to God, now and forever. We need also to resurrect from the present situation of isolation and separation from one another due to Covid19. This promises us a greater reward for all the past days of suffering and pain especially those who lived through terrible illness caused by this virus. Therefore, let us march forward faithfully in our blessed hope, knowing that those who believe in Jesus, will live.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

4th Sunday Of Lent - YEAR A  1 Sam 16.1b, 6-7, 10-13; Eph 5.8-14; Jn 9.1-41

Silence in the Cemetery
One day I visited our cemetery at Mira Road (Mumbai - India). I used to say to people that whenever they have troubles and problems disturbing them, they should make it a point to visit the cemetery. I would dramatize a whole lot of issues that can be meditated on the cemetery. Issues like when we are totally lost in a relationship, when we feel poor, miserable, rejected, disappointed, they would find an atmosphere there to reawaken a sense of uselessness, a sense of tranquility, a sense of total surrender to God. I used to ask our parishioners to meditate on these wonderful people who were with us one day in the parish, joking, smiling, shaking hands, at times protesting, criticizing etc. are now in the eternal calm of the Father. That day I meditated on one point, what is the will of my Father for me? I didn't get an answer. But some sense of total peace flooded in my heart. I felt that in spite of my sins and mistakes, there is one who cares for me. Who gazes into my heart, the one who tenderly caresses me. I felt myself on the top of the world. I visited a couple of graves, especially the graves of the young ones who left us recently, through tragic deaths. A tear came to my eye, and a deep sense of sigh, that these young ones perhaps could have made a difference in their families, in their neighborhood etc. I thought for a while, and got convinced that it was the will of the Father for them. I came back with an experience to the parish house. I felt detached from many of my so called vicious thinking and petty attachments. I felt free at least for a while. Now I need to work at these things so that I can try to be free. I was holding this experience till today, and I have shared it with you now.

Born Blind
Today's Gospel reading reminds us of Jesus being the Light. (Jn 9.1-41) As we heard, it was the story of the man who was physically blind since birth. This reading reminds us that by nature, we are all born spiritually blind, blind to so many multimillion things around us. Our blindness ends when we were admitted into the Body of Christ through the Sacrament of Baptism. By remaining righteousness through the Sacraments of Confession and the Holy Eucharist, we have maintained our sight. Should we choose to neglect our blessed hope and shipwreck, surely, we will quickly find ourselves blinded by the darkness that surrounds us. The real blindness in our lives could be our attachments. Attachments to the way we think that others should be.

Children of the Light

Today's Second reading (Eph 5.8-14) reminded us to live as children of the Light. It presented the contrast between those who live a Christian life versus the pagans. The Christians were compared to the light versus the darkness. Why did Saint Paul feel it necessary to remind the Ephesians of this truth? It was because some men had a tendency of allowing themselves to be influenced by Gnostic teachings. These individuals considered themselves enlightened and above all considerations of good or evil. Surely, pride must have taken over their reasoning.

The lesson that we learn from the first reading of today is that God is free to elect whoever He chooses. Divine wisdom far surpasses human wisdom. Human wisdom is limited to what it sees and what it hears. Divine wisdom searches the soul, knowing every thoughts of the mind. Divine wisdom knows those who are fearful of the Lord, those who are humble, and those who will serve the Lord in obedience. It knows those who will live as children of the Light.

We are all called to be light to others. We should never become darkness. Hence, each one's duty is to find out ways and means of becoming the light of Christ.

Blind Attachment
The blind man in the Gospel passage is attached, attached to his own thinking. Pharisees too are attached to their way of thinking. Now the tragedy of an attachment is that if its object is not attained it causes unhappiness. But if it is attained. It does not cause happiness - it merely causes a flash of pleasure followed by weariness. and It is always accompanied, of course, by the anxiety that you may lose the object of your attachment. You will say, "Can't I keep just one attachment?" Of course. You can keep as many as you want. But for each attachment you pay a price in lost happiness. Think of this. The nature of attachments is such, that even if you satisfy many of them in the course of a single day, the one attachment that was not satisfied will prey upon your mind and make you unhappy. There is no way to win the battle of attachments. As well search for water without wetness as for an attachment without unhappiness. No one has ever lived who has come up with a formula for keeping the objects of one's attachments without struggle, anxiety, fear and, sooner or later, defeat.
 
The Battle

There is only one-way to win the battle against blind attachments. Drop them. Contrary to popular belief, dropping attachments is easy. All you have to do is see; but really see, the following truths. First truth. You are holding on to a false belief, namely, the belief that without this particular person or thing you will not be happy. Take your attachments one at a time and see the falseness of this belief. You may encounter resistance from your heart, but the moment you do see, there will be an immediate emotional result. At that very instant the attachment loses its force. Second truth, if you just enjoy things, refusing to let yourself be attached to them, that is, refusing to hold the false belief that you will not be happy without them, you are spared all the struggle and emotional strain of protecting them and guarding them for yourself. Has it occurred to you that you can keep all the objects of your attachments without giving them up? Without renouncing a single one of them and you can enjoy them even more on a non-attachment, a non-clinging basis, because you are peaceful now and relaxed and unthreatened in your enjoyment of them? The third and final truth, if you learn to enjoy the scent of a thousand flowers you will not cling to one or suffer when you cannot get it. If you have a thousand favorites dishes, the loss of one will go unnoticed and leave your happiness unimpaired. But it is precisely your attachments that prevent you from developing a wider and more varied taste for things and people.

In the light of these three truths no attachment can survive. But the light must shine uninterruptedly if it is to be effective. Attachments can only thrive in the darkness of illusion. The rich man cannot enter the kingdom of joy not because he wants to be bad but because he chooses to be blind.

The Blind Man
When some Pharisees heard the words of Jesus, they said, "Surely we are not blind, are we?" (v. 40) To this, Jesus answered, "If you were blind, you would have no sin. But now that you say, 'We see, "your sin remains" (v. 41). In other words, he who is blind cannot be guilty of sin for not knowing the truth for he is unaware of the truth. But he who is aware of and rejects the truth, claiming that his way is the way, he is guilty of sin. It is only when one realizes the extent of his blindness that there is hope of seeing the light. But what makes a case hopeless is when a person possesses self-satisfaction.

Practical Conclusion
In conclusion, "We must work the works of him who sent (us) while it is day; night is coming when no one can work." (Jn 9.4) As the blind man confessed Christ before others, through our Baptism we were called to plead the cause of the Light. If we are rejected because of our spiritual calling, let us rejoice, for it is Christ Himself who is being rejected through our testimony. In the end, the words of Jesus shall be fulfilled, "For judgment I have come into the world." (Jn. 9.39). Casting out our petty attachments can make us children of light and make us salt of the earth and light so that we are capable of bringing some happiness, I mean light in the lives of those who suffer more than us.


Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

3rd Sunday Of Lent - YEAR A  Ex 17.3-7; Rm 5.1-2, 5-8; Jn 4.5-42

I would be Your Slave
St. Francis of Assisi was an ardent advocate of the doctrine of the indwelling of God in man. It enabled him to love every one equally whatever his status in life. One day he met a fellow who had no love for God. As they walked along they met a man who was blind and paralyzed. St. Francis asked the sightless cripple. "Tell me if I were to restore your eyesight and the use of your limbs, would you love me?" "Ah," replied the beggar, "I would not only love you but I would be your slave for the rest of my life." "See," said Francis to the man who maintained that he could not love God, "this man would love me if I gave him his sight and his health. Why don't you love God Who created you with eyesight and strong limbs?" That is what Jesus tells us in today's gospel. If we love him because of the countless blessings he has given us by "keeping his words" he will start dwelling within us in the company of his Father and the Holy Spirit, making us the temples of the Triune God.

The Will of God
How can we do the will of the Father? Simple questions of this kind can disturb us. Don't we all agree that the will of the Father has been revealed to us through all that happens to us around?

In his posthumously published book, Treasure in Clay, the late Archbishop Fulton Sheen writes. "No true vocation starts with 'what I want', or 'what I would like to do,' it starts with God." I quote these words because the gospel reading we have just heard shows us Jesus entering publicly on his vocation. As he does so Jesus' first concern is to show that he is a man under obedience.

My Food and Drink
"To fulfill all righteousness" meant, for Jesus, doing the will of his heavenly Father. That was all that ever mattered for Jesus. Later, he would say that doing his Father's will was what kept him going. When his disciples told him he must eat something, Jesus said. "I have food to eat of which you do not know... Doing the will of him who sent me and bringing his work to completion is my food" (Jn 4. 31-34). Our religion is so centered on Jesus Christ that we may fail to realize how little he did to draw attention to himself. The theme of Jesus' preaching was not himself, but God's kingdom. He came, he said, not to do his will, but the will of another. to serve God by serving others.

This is My Beloved Son

As a devout Jew, Jesus knew by memory many passages from the scriptures of his people- what we call the Old Testament. The words Jesus heard as he emerged from the Jordan following his baptism, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased," would have reminded him of the words of our first reading, from the prophet Isaiah. "Here is my servant... my chosen one with whom I am pleased." Remembering what followed in that Isaiah passage, Jesus knew that he was not called to be the powerful, royal Messiah people were expecting. He would not be a political leader. "not crying out, not shouting," as Isaiah says in that first reading. He was called instead to a ministry of gentleness. "A bruised reed he shall not break, and a smoldering wick he shall not quench," to quote Isaiah's words again.

Why is it important for us to know this? Because each one of us was given a similar task when we were baptized. Like Jesus, we are called "to fulfill all righteousness" by serving God and others. Responding to that call is the highest and best thing we can do with the one life that God has given us. Do we really believe that?

Our Designs
Many people do not. The ambition of many people is to "do their own thing," as the popular modern phrase puts it. Actually, few of us succeed very well in doing our own thing. Rich or poor, female or male, black or white, young, middle-aged or old, all of us are limited by circumstances not of our own making. The poor wish they were rich; the rich think they still don't have enough, and spend much of their time guarding what they do have from loss. No wonder that so many people feel they're on a treadmill; or say. "Its war out there."

The Happier Way
Part of the Gospel, the good news which Jesus Christ proclaims, is that it doesn't have to be like that. There is another way to live. a better way, and certainly a happier one. It is the way Jesus lived. Jesus was never concerned with doing his own thing. He wanted one thing only; to do God's thing. How many of Jesus' sisters and brothers have discovered this key to a happy and fulfilled life we cannot know. Most of them are anonymous. Sometimes, however, God lets us identify some of them. Mother Teresa was such a person. So was Pope John XXIII - as those of us old enough to remember him know well.

Pope John Paul II was another person who found happiness in "fulfilling all righteousness" - in doing not his own thing but God's thing. Weighed down in his closing years by infirmities, a physical wreck yet still mentally alert, Pope John Paul was a sign to the world that life is still worth living, even when one is old and infirm. On the eve of his eightieth birthday, the Pope wrote a letter "To my elderly brothers and sisters." Here is some of what he said. "Despite the limitations brought on by age, I continue to enjoy life. For this I thank the Lord. It is wonderful to be able to give oneself to the very end for the sake of the Kingdom of God!"

Bid me come to you
The concluding paragraphs of this beautiful letter have a message for all of us. whatever our age or circumstances. Let me conclude by reading them to you. After the words just quoted about his joy in giving himself to the very end for the sake of the Kingdom of God, the Pope continues.

"At the same time, I find great peace in thinking of the time when the Lord will call me. from life to life! And so I often find myself saying, with no trace of melancholy, a prayer recited by priests after the celebration of the Eucharist. 'At the hour of my death call me and bid me come to you.' This is the prayer of Christian hope, which in no way detracts from the joy of the present, while entrusting the future to God's gracious and loving care. "Bid me come to you!". this is the deepest yearning of the human heart, even in those who are not conscious of it.
The Words of Jesus echo our present short-term perseverance. Entering the third week in Lenten Season, we are making every effort to persevere in our fasting, our penances and our prayers so we may obtain the strength that we need to overcome our sinful tendencies. By the grace of God, we shall achieve our personal goals so we may be one with Jesus as He is one with the Father (Jn 17.11).

Water from Rock
Today's First Reading from the Book of Exodus (Ex 17.3-7) was a prophetic picture of what was to come through Jesus Christ. It consisted of one of the three events found in the Old Testament that speak of people thirsting for water.

The first event took place in Mirah (Ex 15.22-7) where Moses turned bitter water into sweet water. The second event, (Ex 17.3- 7) the one that was read today, took place at Rephidim. Being without water, Moses was commanded by God to take the elders with him and to strike the rock with the staff. Then, miraculously, water came out of the rock. The third event took place at Kadesh (Num 20.2-13) where once more Moses was commanded by God to assemble the congregation and to command the rock before their eyes to yield its water. As biblical history tell us, Moses did not trust in the Lord. {Num 20.12) Because he struck the rock twice, he was punished and not allowed to enter the promised land.

In view of the above events, Moses was a type of Christ, both providing water to the people. On this subject, Saint Paul tells us, "Our ancestors all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual rock that followed them, and the rock was Christ. Nevertheless, God was not pleased with most of them, and they were struck down in the wilderness." (1 Cor. 10.4-5)

Water is symbolic of the Holy Spirit. On this subject, the Catholic Church teaches us, "The symbolism of water signifies the Holy Spirit's action in Baptism, since after the invocation of the Holy Spirit it becomes the efficacious sacramental sign of new birth. just as the gestation of our first birth took place in water, so the water of Baptism truly signifies that our birth into the divine life is given to us in the Holy Spirit. As "by one Spirit we were all baptized," so we are also "made to drink of one Spirit." (1 Cor 12.13) Thus the Spirit is also personally the living water welling up from Christ crucified (Jn 19.34; 1 Jn 5.8) as its source and welling up in us to eternal life." (Jn 4.10-14, 7.38; Ex 17.1-6; Is 55.1; Zech 14.8; 1 Cor 10.4; Rev 21.6; 22.17) (CCC 694)

God's Love in the Heart
Today's Second Reading (Rm 5.1-2, 5-8) informs us that God's love was poured into our hearts by the power of the Holy Spirit that has been given to us through Christ. The Divine love of God assures salvation to those who are justified. Having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ (Rm 5.1). Through peace with God, our reconciliation replaces our alienation that was caused by the disobedience of Adam.

Jesus at the Well
Tired of His journey, Jesus sat on the ground by Jacob's well (Jn 4.6). (Jacob's well is located between "Tell el-Balatah" and "Askar.") During that time, while the disciples had gone to the city to buy food, a Samaritan woman came to draw water (Jn 4.7-8). Jesus asked her to give Him water. At this point, the Samaritan woman said to Jesus, "How is it that you, a Jew, ask a drink of me, a woman of Samaria?" (Jn 4.9). In those days, it was unheard of for a rabbi to speak to a woman in public, even worst for a Jew to request water from a Samaritan. The Jewish people considered the Samaritans to be unclean, this including their utensils for eating and drinking. Therefore it appears that Jesus was asking to drink from an unclean water jar? Yet, Jesus was not bothered a bit by such scruples.

The Hesitation
Knowing the Samaritan woman's hesitation, Jesus told her, "If you knew the gift of God, and who it is that is saying to you, 'Give me a drink,' you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water." (Jn 5.10) What is the gift of God that Jesus was speaking about? It was Jesus Himself! But who was Jesus to the Samaritan woman at that moment? All she could see was a thirsty Jewish man who had been travelling.

What is Living Water?
And what was this living water that the thirsty Traveller was offering her? The Samaritan woman must have understood "living water" to mean running water versus water from a well or cistern water. But is this what Jesus was telling her? In the Old Testament, when a reference was made to "living water," it meant "water of life." It meant Divine vitality, revelation and wisdom (Jer 2.13; Zech 14.8; Eze 47.9; Prov 13.14).

Literal Meaning
As Nicodemus literally took the Words of Jesus when he was told that he had to be born again to enter the Kingdom of God (Jn 3.4- 6), the woman also literally took the Words of Jesus. Unable to logically understand Jesus, she said, "Sir, you have no bucket, and the well is deep. Where do you get that living water? Are you greater than our ancestor Jacob, who gave us the well, and with his children and his flocks drank from it?" (Jn 3.11-12).

How Could Jesus get Water?
Since Jesus had no means of getting water out of the well, where would He get his "living water" from? When considering how great Jacob was in the eyes of God and the people, and that he had no better source of water than the well that was present, how could Jesus offer to give better water?

Ordinary Water
To her question, Jesus answered, "Everyone who drinks of this water will be thirsty again, but those who drink of the water that I will give them will never be thirsty. The water that I will give will become in them a spring of water gushing up to eternal life" (Jn 3.13-4).

Thirst of Wisdom
In Sirach 24.20-1, we read that he who drinks wisdom will thirst again. One could never satisfy the desire for wisdom. But, on the contrary, through the Sacrament of Baptism, the water that Jesus will give, will have the fountain of eternal life within him.

Understanding "living water" to mean never to thirst again, the Samaritan woman asked Jesus for some of it so she would never have to go back to the well to draw water. (Jn. 3.15) What followed was a conversion in which Jesus revealed to the woman that she had five husbands and that she was now living with another man (Jn 3.16- 8).

A Prophet
Jesus' reply to the request of the woman for living water was intended to show her that He possessed superhuman knowledge. This provided the woman with sufficient enlightenment to perceive that the Words of Jesus must have had a greater meaning. Surprised, the woman said to Jesus, "Sir, I see that you are a prophet" (Jn 3.19). Now, the woman no longer saw a Jewish man before her, but rather, a prophet.

Place of Worship
This provided the woman with a perfect opportunity to settle a long standing controversy between the Jews and the Samaritans regarding the proper place of sacrificial worship (Gen 12.7, 33.20; Deut 27.4). The woman said to Jesus, "Our ancestors worshipped on this mountain, but you say that the place where people must worship is in Jerusalem" (Jn 3.20).

The Hour is coming
To this, Jesus responded, "Woman, believe me, the hour is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem" (Jn 3.21). The response from Jesus indicated that soon, it will make no difference who is right or who is wrong. For "the Christian economy, therefore, since it is the new and definitive Covenant, will never pass away; and no new public revelation is to be expected before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ" (Dei Filius 3 DS 3008). Yet even if Revelation is already complete, it has not been made completely explicit; it remains for Christian faith gradually to grasp its full significance over the course of the centuries" (CCC 66).

Manner of Worship
Jesus said to the Samaritan woman, "You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. But the hour is coming, and is now here, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such as these to worship him" (Jn 3.21-22). In other words, in Judaism, God's revelation was safeguarded. But the Samaritans, although they had good faith, they preserved the truth in a distorted form. Salvation came through the Jewish people. The proof was Jesus Himself, He being Jewish. Through Jesus was the fulfillment of the expected Messiah.

When Jesus said that "the hour is coming," He was referring to His glorification, the "hour" when His Church would be instituted. The final sacrifice will have been made, the perfect sacrifice of the Lamb of God.

God is Spirit
Jesus said, "God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth" (Jn 3.24). These words are echoed in the First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians. "The first man, Adam, became a living being; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit" (1 Cor 15.45). Christ is the life-giving Spirit in the sense that His actions are life-giving. God is Spirit in the sense that He gives the Spirit. Equally, God is light and love (1 Jn 1.5, 4.8). That is why the believers must worship God in "spirit and truth," in the truth as thought by the Spirit who guides and teaches.

The Messiah
At that moment, the woman indicated that she knew that the Messiah was coming and that He would proclaim all things to the people (Jn 3.25). She remembered the Words of God, "I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their own people; I will put my words in the mouth of the prophet, who shall speak to them everything that I command" (Deut 18.18). Having perceived that Jesus was a prophet over and above being Jewish, the woman now suspected that He might be the promised Messiah. To this, Jesus answered, "I am he, the one who is speaking to you" (Jn 3.26). Jesus affirmed the fulfillment of the words spoken through Isaiah, "Therefore my people shall know my name; therefore, in that day they shall know that it is I who speak; here am I" (Is 52.6).

The Disciples
During the Gospel Reading, we then heard that the disciples returned and were astonished that Jesus was speaking to a woman. Following that, the woman left and returned to the city, leaving behind her water jar. For she had no more need for it because she had come to the source of living water. Once in the city, the woman invited the people to come and see Jesus who told her everything that she had done. Her words echoed the words of Philip to Nathanael, "We have found him about whom Moses in the law and also the prophets wrote" (Jn 1.45).

My Food is...
In the meantime, the disciples were urging Jesus to eat some food (Jn 3.31).To this Jesus answered, "I have food to eat that you do not know about".

So the disciples said to one another, "Surely no one has brought him something to eat? My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to complete his work" (Jn 3.31-4). It is obvious that the disciples did not understand the full meaning of what Jesus was saying. The words of Jesus summed up His entire career. He came to do the will of His Father who sent Him, even to death on the Cross. In Jesus was found perfect obedience, to the last drop of blood.

The Gospel Reading ended by telling us that the people came from the city to hear Jesus. As they stated, "It is no longer because of what (the woman) said that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this is truly the Saviour of the world." (Jn 3.42) Not only did the Samaritans come to believe, they also recognized the fulfillment of the Messiah in Jesus.

Practical Conclusion
From today's readings, we are reminded that as children of God, as members of the Body of Christ, we too have been called to do the Divine Will of He who has called us to share in the life-giving Spirit through faith in Jesus and the Sacrament of Baptism. As Jesus was called to complete His work, we too are called to complete our calling through our perseverance in the living faith. To persevere necessitates our ongoing reception of the Sacraments of Confession and the Holy Eucharist as the means of maintaining our righteousness before the Lord God.

With the approach of Easter that commemorates the glorious Resurrection of the Lord Jesus, we now, more than ever, have an obligation to reinstate our holiness through the Holy Sacraments that have been given to us by Jesus Himself. Let us keep this in mind as we enter the Third Week in Lent.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

SECOND Sunday Of Lent - YEAR A  Gen 12.1-4; 2 Tim 1.8b-10; Mt 17.1-9

Costly Cosmetic Surgeries
Today cosmetic surgeries are a normal procedure to enhance one's personality. At times these expensive surgeries can also distort one's appearance. I met a lady who had a plastic surgery and now she is fighting in the court for compensation for distorting her face. She claims Rs. 10,00,000 (CAD $ 20,000) as compensation because the doctor who had promised her that her face would be more beautiful had in fact disfigured it. She is suffering and is unable to come in public. Yet, I encouraged her to face the reality. Well, she has coped with the situation to a certain extent frequenting some counseling sessions.

What is Human Beauty?
Of course modern markets encourage us to transform ourselves into beautiful persons. What is being beautiful? Is it not being beautiful inside our being, in our soul than being beautiful in our appearance? There was recently a program in NDTV about appearances. Yes, majority were convinced that the external appearance gave them a sense of confidence and security. What about the inner assurance and confidence? Can we get that just being beautiful for a while? The truth is that when you live with a person or persons for a few days, don't you reveal yourself fully who you are on the inside?

Lent invites us to be transfigured from inside out
The account of the transfiguration of Jesus Christ as recorded here in Mark (parallel passages are found in Matthew 17.1-3 and Luke 9.28-36) is a demonstration to three witnesses that Jesus Christ was who He claimed to be. In all three accounts of the transfiguration of Jesus Christ, we are given the names of the three disciples who accompanied Jesus and who stood as human witnesses to the glory that was Christ's. There were also three heavenly witnesses, Moses, Elijah, and the voice of God from heaven. Therefore, the Old Testament law of three witnesses required to attest to any fact (Deut 19.15) was satisfied both in earth and in heaven.

Metamorphosis
The word "transfigured" is a very interesting word. The Greek word is "metamorpho" and it means to transform, literally or figuratively to metamorphose, or to change. The word is a verb that means to change into another form. It also means to change the outside to match the inside. The prefix "meta" means to change and the "morphe" means form. In the case of the transfiguration of Jesus Christ it means to match the outside with the reality of the inside. To change the outward so that it matches the inward reality. Jesus' divine nature was "veiled" (Heb 10.20) in human form and the transfiguration was a glimpse of that glory. Therefore, the transfiguration of Jesus Christ displayed the 'Shekinah' the glory of God incarnate in the Son. The voice of God attesting to the truth of Jesus' Sonship was the second time God's voice was heard. The first time was at Jesus' baptism into His public ministry in the presence of John the Baptist (Mt 3.7; Mk 1.11; Lk 3.22).

Glimpse of Glory
Therefore, the transfiguration of Jesus Christ was a unique display of His divine character and a glimpse of the glory, which Jesus had before He came to earth in human form. This truth is emphasized for us in a passage in the Apostle Paul's letter to Philippians. "Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus. Who, being in the form (morphe) of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God. But made Himself of no reputation, and took upon Him the form (morphe) of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men. And being found in fashion as a man, He humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God also hath highly exalted Him, and given Him a name which is above every name. That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father" (Phil 2.5-11).

The Son of God came to earth in the form of a man to be the true servant of God and to gift mankind with the greatest gift ever given, eternal life. The transfiguration of Jesus Christ was a visible sign in the presence of reliable witnesses of the reality of the power of God and the glory, which is Christ Jesus

The Mountain
The traditional location of the Transfiguration is on Mount Tabor, which is about a six day walk from Caesarea Philippi, where Jesus had been with His disciples prior to this event. In Caesarea Philippi, Peter had said to Jesus with faith believing, "You are the Christ, the Son the living God." (Mt 16.16) After this declaration Jesus confirmed its truth, and told His disciples that it was not yet the time for them to tell others that He was the Messiah and He began to share that He must go to Jerusalem to suffer, be killed and be raised again to life on the third day (see Mt 16.21). The disciples were saddened and somewhat disillusioned by this news. Peter even tried to rebuke Jesus and prevent Him from allowing such terrible things to happen, but Jesus rebuked Peter for his carnality. Peter and the other disciples expected that since Jesus was the Messiah, His glorious Kingdom would be imminent. But Jesus taught that first comes suffering, then comes the glory and the reward (Mt 17.24-27). Later, Peter finally learned this lesson and his epistle reflects it (see I Pet 1.6-8, 11; 4.12-5.11).

The Three Disciples
The disciples closest to Jesus, Peter, James and John, were likely the one's most saddened by the news of His coming death, and they were the ones Jesus chose to come with Him to the mountain and witness His glory. It must have been a great encouragement to them. As Jesus was praying and having communion with God His Father, His appearance changed drastically. The three men watched with amazement and awe as Jesus shone with heavenly brightness, so much so, that there was no adequate earthly description for it. In Mark's Gospel the brightness is compared to exceedingly white snow, or something cleaner than anything possible on earth. Luke's description says Jesus was white and glistening, and we read from Matthew's account, that Jesus' face shone like the sun and His clothes became as white as light. Many years later when the risen and glorified Lord Jesus appeared to John on Patmos he described that His "countenance was like the sun shining in its strength" (Rev 1.16b).

Prayer Transforms
On the Transfiguration mount, the drastic change in Jesus' appearance occurred when He was praying and having communion with God. To a lesser degree the countenance of Moses had also changed when he had been in the presence of God (Ex 34.29, 30). What is on the inside shows on the outside, like when Stephen, the first Christian martyr was testifying to the truth, his face was like that of an angel (Acts 6.15).

As Jesus was praying in this glorious state, Moses and Elijah appeared in some visible form, talking with Jesus about His coming departure that He would accomplish in Jerusalem (Lk 9.31). God the Father had revealed to them what would happen to Jesus. Their words were surely meant to strengthen Jesus for the trials and suffering He willingly was soon to endure.

Peter's Excitement
Peter was so excited to see these great men of old, that He inappropriately made the suggestion of making three tents, one for each of them, likely so they could stay longer, and undoubtedly so Peter could speak with them too. Peter may also have thought that this was the beginning of the Messiah's earthly reign as king, but this was not God's timing. God interrupted Peter by causing a bright, thick cloud to cover Jesus, Moses and Elijah, and saying very important words, similar to the words He spoke at Jesus' baptism. "This is My beloved Son in whom I well pleased. Hear Him!" (Mt 17.5b; cf. 3.17) God desires that we listen to and obey Jesus, for He is far greater than Moses, the great Law-giver, or Elijah the great prophet. God wanted Peter to know that he could not put His Son on the same level of importance as Moses or Elijah. Also, the important thing is not just seeing wonderful sights and having great experiences, but what is more important is hearing the Word of the Lord. God emphatically commanded that we listen to Jesus!

Jesus Stands Alone
When the cloud lifted, Jesus stood alone. The three disciples had fallen in fear on their faces when they heard the voice of God, but Jesus touched them and told them not to be afraid. Then Jesus told them not to tell anyone about what had happened, until after He had arisen from the dead. Some people had already tried to forcibly make Jesus king, and if the people were told about what Peter, James and John witnessed, then they might once again try to do it, but it was not the plan of God at this time.

From the Transfiguration we see three great Testimonies about the Greatness and superiority of Jesus.

God the Father authenticated the Divinity of Jesus by His audible voice.

Moses and Elijah representing the Law and the Prophets testified by their presence that Jesus was from above and He was the fulfilment of the Law and the Prophets.

The three disciples were eyewitnesses of Jesus' glorious state. This experience had a great effect on these disciples and their testimony of it had a great effect on all the others to strengthen their faith. Peter never forgot it. In his epistle he recalls the Transfiguration saying. "We were eyewitnesses of His majesty" (II Pet 1.16b). Likewise, when John wrote his Gospel, he recalled. "we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father." (Jn 1.14) In fact, John's whole Gospel emphasizes the Deity of Jesus and the glory of His Person (Cfr. Jn 2.11; 7.39; 11.4; 12.23; 13.31-32; 20.31).

On the mount that day, we see represented and combined, the two Covenants of God. The New Covenant represented through Peter, James, and John who would enter into this covenant through the work of Jesus; and the Old Covenant was represented by Moses and Elijah. The Saints of old, must have looked with excited anticipation to Jesus - the fulfilment of the Law and the prophets (Lk 24.27; Heb 1.1) and the ushering in of the New Covenant of Grace through the work Jesus would accomplish.

Practical Conclusion
The Transfiguration revealed the plan of God for redemption and the importance and necessity of Jesus' crucifixion. Moses and Elijah encouraged Jesus in the work He would accomplish for the salvation of the world. The Law of Moses could not save anyone, nor could prophecies, but Jesus alone, of whom the prophecies spoke, was the Redeemer of sinful mankind.
The Transfiguration revealed the superiority of Jesus over Moses and the prophets.

It served as a pledge or foretaste of the future glory that Jesus would attain by obediently suffering and going to the Cross.

It served as a dim picture of the glorious state awaiting the followers of Jesus, those who have been redeemed by His precious blood, will one day attain when our citizenship is in heaven. For Jesus Christ "will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to His glorious body" (Phil 3.21).

In the Transfiguration we see the King of righteousness in His glory; we see the glory of His Person, the glory of His kingdom; the glory of His Nature; and even the glory of His submission to the will and plan of God that He go to Jerusalem to suffer at the hands of evil men, yet we also see the glory of His power. Jesus had the power to prevent His crucifixion, but because of His great love for mankind, He willingly suffered and bore the sins of the world upon Himself that we might have forgiveness of our sins and eternal life in heaven with Him.

The Transfiguration was a glorious revelation and a glorious experience for both Jesus and the three disciples to witness. It had a glorious outcome, for in it we see that, even though Jesus was to die, the outcome was predetermined, for He would be the Victor over death and even be glorified in death. Jesus is the glorious King indeed and He is worthy to be enthroned on our hearts and be King over our lives.


Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

First Sunday Of Lent - YEAR A  Gen 2.7-9; 16-18, 2-5, 3.1-7; Rm 5.12-19; Mt 4.1-11

The Accident
Two employees of a soft wear company died on spot at Kashimira, close to our Parish at Mira Road St. Joseph's (India) on 16th January 2008. People were shocked. All three didn't wear helmet while riding the motorcycle. In spite of the warnings I used to give to young people in my parish, when such incidents occur our heart breaks. There is no way we can convince people. Were they tempted to travel with that velocity? Or were they overtaking a long vehicle? I am not here to judge. But my contention is that temptations just arise from nowhere. We need to be on our guard. Temptation to cross a road without attention to speeding vehicles, temptation to do things that are not healthy for our life, temptation to overdo certain things can really land us into greater troubles. This Sunday reminds us that even Jesus was tempted, but he faced all these temptations squarely with the power of prayer and fasting. Can we take a lesson at the inception of lent?

And immediately the Spirit impelled Him to go out into the wilderness. And He was in the wilderness forty days being tempted by Satan; and He was with the wild beasts, and the angels were ministering to Him (Mk 1.12-13).

The Temptation of Christ
So, begins and ends Mark's account of the wilderness temptations. Mark's concise summary helps establish the setting for the temptation of Jesus. The wilderness temptation is the first recorded event that follows the baptism of Jesus. It's important to review Christ's baptism to better understand the nature of Satan's attacks.

Baptism of Jesus
When Jesus was baptized God declared, "This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased" (Mt 3.17; Mk 1.11). Satan challenged this declaration in the first two temptations.

The wilderness
Following the baptism, Mark indicated that the Spirit "immediately" led Jesus into the wilderness.

The word "wilderness" refers to deserted areas in the unpopulated wilds of Palestine. It is often translated as "desert." Mark indicates Jesus was "with the wild beasts," presumably isolated from the distractions of humanity (Mk 1.13).

Jesus fasts 40 days
Jesus "ate nothing" for 40 days prior to the temptation (Lk 4.2). Moses and Elijah endured similar fasts before receiving divine revelations from God (Ex 34.28; I Kgs 19.8). And after He had fasted 40 days and 40 nights He was hungry. And the tempter came and said to Him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread" (Mt 4.2-3).

The First Temptation
Satan tried to place doubt in the mind of Jesus with the words "If you are the Son of God." Matthew shows that the devil came at the end of Jesus' fast.

The Trap
The danger of this temptation was not in making bread. Jesus was not under a prohibition from miraculously creating food. On two occasions Jesus used his power to create bread for a multitude of people (cfr. Mk 6.35-44; Mk 8.1-21). The real peril lay in Satan's proposed reason for creating bread. That reason is "If you are the Son of God". Satan was challenging Christ's credentials.

Jesus quotes Moses
But He answered and said, "It is written, Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that proceeds from the mouth of God" (Mt 4.4). Jesus immediately perceived the real danger, and responded with a passage from Deuteronomy 8.3. In that passage, Moses reminded the Israelites that God humbled them in the wilderness when He provided manna from heaven.

His humble attitude
This quote gives insight into Christ's mindset during this ordeal. His reliance on God's will is contrasted with reliance on temporal things, like food. Jesus humbly relied on God. He rendered obedience by not doubting God's declaration, "This is my beloved Son."

The Second Temptation
Then the devil took Him into the holy city; and he had Him stand on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to Him, "If you are the Son of God throw yourself down. For it is written, 'He will give His angels charge concerning you,' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone'" (Mt 4.5-6).

Satan took Jesus to Jerusalem to stand on the temple. There Satan challenged Jesus to throw himself down. Although the exact spot is not given, Josephus recorded that Herod's royal portico towered 450 feet over the Kedron Valley.

Satan quotes scripture
Having lost the first challenge to Jesus, Satan appealed to scripture by quoting Psalm 91.11-12. When isolated from other passages, this proposal seems reasonable. If Jesus were God's Son, then scripture promised to save Him.

Jesus Responds
Deceptively, Satan tried inciting Jesus to test the scripture. Jesus addressed the real issue by quoting Deuteronomy 6.16. Jesus said to him, "On the other hand it is written, "You shall not put the Lord your God to the test" (Mt 4.7).

Testing God
To commit this act would have tested God, not scripture. Putting God to the test does not refer to an exam. Rather, the idea of "experimenting with God" is contained in this phrase.
Had He fallen to this temptation, Jesus would have substituted humble faith in God's guidance with a blatant challenge to the Father's loving-kindness. God protects His children, but also expects them to exercise sound judgment.

Practical lessons
The contrast between the first and second temptations is instructive.
-The first challenged Jesus to doubt his position. Satan tried to undermine Christ's confidence.
-The second encouraged him to be over-confident in his standing with God. So confident that he would recklessly endanger himself to prove God would save him.

Personal Application
The two temptations of doubt and of recklessness are real today. A faithful Christian may doubt her salvation for lack of feeling or perceiving God's presence in her life. This is the danger of the first temptation.

The second is more sinister. A disobedient Christian may live in sin, recklessly presuming that God will forgive, regardless of his actions. Paul warned of this attitude when he wrote "What shall we say then? Are we to continue in sin that grace might increase? May it never be! How shall we who died to sin still live in it?" (Rm 6.1-2).

Jesus' method of Interpretation
The second temptation gives special insight into how Jesus interpreted scripture. Jesus interpreted scriptures in light of other passages, so that they harmonized.

Satan isolated a passage from Psalms 91.11-12, and suggested that it applied to the limited situation he presented Jesus with (throwing himself from the temple). When isolated from other passages Satan's suggested interpretation appears logical.

Jesus quickly showed that this perverted interpretation did not harmonize with scripture. He quoted Deuteronomy 6.16 which reads, "You shall not put the Lord your God to the test."

Trends Today
The primary cause of church division today is improper interpretation of scripture. The first violation of Jesus' method of interpretation is to isolate a passage from other scriptures. The second violation of Christ's method is to interpret a passage outside it's proper context.

Read for yourself
Relying on another's interpretation is dangerous. Had Jesus relied on Satan's false interpretation, He would have failed. The Christians in Acts 17.11 were "examining the scriptures daily to see whether these things were so." Even though they had apostles teaching them, they took responsibility for verifying the accuracy of the things they were being taught. This responsibility falls on each Christian, not just church leaders.

Again, the devil took Him to a very high mountain, and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. And he said to Him, "All these things will I give you if you fall down and worship me" (Mt 4.8-9).

The Third Temptation
Since no mountain stands high enough to view all the world's kingdoms, it's likely that Satan exercised some supernatural power to show Christ "all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time" (Lk 4.5).

Satan's authority
Jesus did not question Satan's authority to grant the world's kingdoms. Bear in mind, however, that Jesus did not directly address Satan's apparent deceptions in the first two temptations. Either Satan possessed this authority, or he was validating his reputation as "the father of lies" (Jn 8.44). In either case, Satan's authority was not the issue. His suggestion violated the first commandment, "You shall have no other gods before Me" (Ex 20.3).

Jesus Responds
Then Jesus said to him, "Begone, Satan! For it is written, "You shall worship the Lord your God, and serve Him only" (Mt 4.10). Jesus quotes Moses; this time from Deuteronomy 6.13.

Gospel differences
The order of the 2nd and 3rd temptations is inverted in Matthew and Luke. Which account is chronological? Many commentators believe that Matthew's account is chronological, while Luke's is topical. This opinion is founded on two facts. Matthew 4.5 and 4.11 contain the word "then" when transitioning through this event. Luke connects the temptations with the word "and," which contains no chronological inference. Jesus' response to the third temptation strengthens this view. The words "Begone, Satan!" likely signal an end to this trial.

Angels Minister to Jesus
Then the devil left Him, and behold, angels came and ministered to Him (Mt 4.11).

When Satan left, angels attended to the needs of Jesus. The next angelic appearance during Christ's ministry occurred when He was praying in the Garden of Gethsemane. An angel appeared in the garden to strengthen Him (Lk 22.43).

Was Jesus Tempted?
Some assert that Jesus could not be tempted by citing the following passage.
Let no one say when he is tempted, "I am being tempted by God"; for God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does He Himself tempt anyone (Jas 1.13).

Two claims
Two claims are given to support the above conclusion.
1. Jesus was God in the flesh.
2. Since God cannot be tempted, Jesus was immune to temptation.

The True Claim
The first claim agrees with scripture. Jesus was indeed God in the flesh. See John 1.1-5, 14 and Colossians 2.15-18 for this evidence.

The False Claim
The second assertion does not agree with scripture. Twice the writer of Hebrews indicated that Jesus was tempted. For in that He Himself has suffered, being tempted, He is able to aid those who are tempted (Heb 2.18). For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin (Heb 4.15).

Practical Conclusion
Jesus was tempted by Satan, and was in fact tempted in all the ways that we are tempted today. Yet He did not sin. One reason Jesus is our perfect high priest is because he can sympathize with us. He knows how it felt to be tempted.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

6TH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME - YEAR A Sirach 15:15-20; 1 Corinthians 2:6-10; Matthew 5:17-37

Jesus's radical approach to the Ten Commandments not only to its essence but wants to present them in a perfect way giving a very clear explanation and referring to its innermost essential perfect sense. What Jesus says about what has been taught in the past is uncomfortably clear: those rules are not enough to achieve perfection of love. His followers are allowed no anger, no abusive language, no lustful thoughts, no divorce, no oaths. It is hard to avoid the demands of these teachings. We try to water them down at times, claiming they apply only to certain people or are meant as ideals. It doesn't work. Jesus spoke them to the crowd, not to a specially chosen elite.

Jesus makes the claim that God's law does not go far enough, that it is inadequate. His willingness to overrule the law of God is a sign of the divine power and authority with which Jesus taught. And that power and authority is the guarantee that somehow or other, I can, indeed, live as he calls me to do. The reason that I can is my Baptism. In Baptism, I am united with the Risen Lord, the One who has overcome death. Nothing, then, is truly impossible in living as he did. I can do it if I be willing to try.

The Pharisees considered the Mosaic law to be the summary of all wisdom, human and divine, a complete and sure guide of conduct, an assurance of good relations with God. This value of the law Jesus did not accept-as is evident from his own non-observance of the Sabbath rules and the laws of Levitical cleanliness. Yet in the beginning of our Gospel today, Jesus asserts that his mission is not to annul or destroy the Mosaic law but rather to fulfill it or bring the law to final perfection. He meant that his disciples were to follow exactly his complete and perfect understanding of the law. He explains what he means by six examples (four in this Gospel and two next Sunday). In each of these six examples, Jesus presents an antithesis between the old understanding of the law and his pronouncement of the perfect law. There is no easy, consistent pattern, however. What we understand here is that the law of Moses was good enough, but Jesus gave to this law a perfect interpretation.

In the first example, Jesus not only prohibits murder but even anger, which can lead to murder. Then he insists that fraternal relations are more important than cultic duties; that is, we must first be reconciled with our neighbor before we bring our offering to God's altar. There must be extra effort on the part of one who gets angry to rectify this disorder in order that he can live peacefully with his family members or neighbours.

In the second example, Jesus not only prohibits adultery, but also lustful desires that can lead to adultery. Again, he insists on internal disposition not just external acts. This admonition server very well to all who are trying to trivialize the seriousness of this sin. In this modern world we know how people can get addicted to mass media junk that can invade our minds and hearts innumerable ways. Jesus wants wholehearted purity than just avoiding a big sin.

In the third example, he takes up the question of divorce. Regarding divorce, there were two governing views at the time: the conservative opinion (Shammai) which only permitted divorce in the case of adultery, or the liberal opinion (Hillel) which permitted divorce for lesser causes. Jesus rejects both views and does not permit divorce for any reason at all. Marriage is for life. There is no separation. Once married they both become one flesh.

In the fourth example, Jesus not only prohibits false oaths, but also implies that truthfulness should be secured by the inner integrity of the person, without the deceits and lack of trust surrounding some oaths and vows of the time. False oaths often make people believe, yet in reality more insistence on something would mean it contradicts its spirit.
In the fifth example-which will be read next week-our Lord rejects "an eye for an eye" retaliation of revenge and proposes non-resistance. In the last example, Jesus teaches not only love of neighbor but also love of enemies, after the example of God who sends rain on good as well as bad people.

The Lord said, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the Scribes and Pharisees you will not enter God's Kingdom. This is because he is not concerned with negative legalisms but with positively doing the will of God. He is not concerned with carefully following complicated legalisms but with loving attitudes after Jesus' own model. His first concern in not with the complexities of law but with the demanding ideal of love, generosity, kindness, patience and peace. In a word, his morality is internal, all encompassing and loving. This helps us understand the meaning of todays Gospel.

Paul did not try to use impressive words that showed great wisdom (2.1-4). But there was great wisdom in his words, although most people in the present age would not recognise that wisdom. That is why Paul called that wisdom a mystery, in other words, a secret. God had sent Paul to declare that secret knowledge, in public. And still people could not understand it.

Paul's mystery is all about what true greatness really is. True greatness is called glory; it belongs to God alone. The mystery is that, at a future time, God has a plan to share his glory with all his people (1 Cor 15.51-52).

In Corinth there was a problem to understand what Paul was teaching them. This is what was happening with the church in Corinth. They were seeking wisdom, but they were doing so in the wrong way. Although they had committed to Christ and received the Holy Spirit, they were seeking generic or worldly wisdom rather than God's wisdom. And because they were seeking generic wisdom, which in their day was made up of complicated philosophical ideals, they felt like the gospel message that Paul had delivered to them was too simple. Likely they were embarrassed about the seemingly weak idea of a crucified Messiah and they wanted something more, so they sought out the wisdom of their culture.

An example: we all know what it takes to lose weight - you must eat healthy and exercise. It's very simple; we're just not willing to do it. Exercising we maintain our health. In the same manner spiritual health is to be promoted with our constant efforts. This will turn out to be a great happiness and joyful experience to all who benefit from you. One thing is theory that in order to lose weight we need to do a set of exercises; the next most important thing is to do the exercise which is beneficial to us. Here is the most important part we need to play; that is leaving aside an ideal rule, we need to get into working out a suitable work out for our body; then the result will follow. This is what Jesus meant exceeding the righteousness of the Pharisees and Scribes.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

5TH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME - YEAR A Isaiah 58.7-10; 1 Corinthians 2.1-5; Matthew 5.13-16

God wants a kind of fast that is accompanied by the loosing of the shackles of wickedness, lifting the yoke of oppression, feeding the hungry, providing shelter for the poor, clothing the naked, and helping the needy neighbor. Those who thus practice social justice are assured of guidance, healing, and a protective escort. "Your righteousness" may mean the abovementioned acts of mercy or it may mean the righteousness of God which is imputed to those who believe.

Prophet Isaiah's prediction that the godly one is assured that whenever he calls, the LORD will answer .... "Here I am." If he will eliminate oppression, stop pointing.... the finger in accusation or in scoffing, and cease from mudslinging and slander, if he will alleviate human need, both spiritual and physical, then God promises that his night will turn to a bright day. He will enjoy guidance, abundant supply of good things, health and strength, beauty and fruitfulness, and national restoration.

There is a growing consensus of opinion that there is one . . . fundamental and essential need: a true and deep love of self, a genuine and joyful self-acceptance, an authentic self-esteem, which result in an interior sense of celebration: 'It's good to be me; I am very happy to be me.

What would Christ say about all this? Very simply, he tells us that self-love is not only good, it is also the starting point for following him: "You shall love your neighbor as yourself" (Mat 19.19).

When we are light within then that light shines outside of us. When we live in darkness, then there is no light within and no way to enlightenment.

Calling us to be the light and salt of the earth is a fundamental calling of Christ to be resourceful and lovable around us. Love and kindness can transform our lives and we are capable of shedding light on the dark corners of our life.

Today's Gospel strongly affirms this attitude. Jesus himself cries out to all his disciples: "You are the salt of the earth.... You are the light of the world." The point we easily miss is that Jesus does not tell us to become the salt of the earth or to make ourselves the light of the world. Rather he affirms that we are salt and light already, because Jesus has called us, and we have responded to his call. Most of the world has not heard this call of Jesus or has not responded to it. Jesus wants us to know that by our faith in him, by his grace and new life, we are salt and light. So Jesus wants us to manifest what we are: "Your light must shine before others."

Inner Strength
He begins with the assurance that our essential salvation and intrinsic goodness is from God. Through baptism and our faith, we are already given that wondrous relationship of love and acceptance by God as his sons and daughters. That relationship is constant and almost indestructible; it establishes our fundamental value and goodness by itself; it does not depend on our social position or our natural abilities. Then, in a dozen different ways, Paul urges us to deepen, to grow, to progress in that reality, to live according to our status as children of God. For example, Paul tells us that we are children of light; therefore, we should walk as children of light.

Our Mission
Well in the Gospel of today, Jesus calls us to be the light of the world and salt of the earth. This great invitation turns out to be a great hope in the age of darkness and tastelessness. When we are capable of shedding light on darkness, then we see all that is inappropriate, and we correct ourselves. We can invite others into this light. It is Christ who is the light of the world makes us bright in our approach to the world and people. Only a changed man can change the world. This change could be brought about by creating a new man, a citizen of the world, by training the mind in moral and spiritual discipline.

This short gospel today must be an eye opener to all of us to be help to the other. Both salt and light have the ingredients of joy and happiness.

Paul on his part wanted the Corinthians to get back in touch with how the essence of his message had come alive among them. Paul saw how easy it was for them to slip into the values of a society that esteemed a person for learning or wealth, for status and fame. Paul wanted them to remember "the mystery," how they had experienced a love of God and community that had revealed the utter emptiness of those societal standards.

When we are too worldly in our approach to life the light within us dims and the salt loses its taste.

When Jesus taught his audience was composed of Israelites. As God's chosen people, they possessed the Word of God, and were supposed to be salt and light in the world. Gradually, throughout Jesus' teaching ministry, he refined this idea that each one who followed him was to have a spiritual impact on those around them. He sent them out to all the towns around them to preach repentance and the coming of the Kingdom of God. Christ had made it clear at the end of his earthly ministry that the gospel was to have a universal application. He commanded his followers to go and teach all nations, to baptize them, and teach them everything he had taught. (Mat 28.18-20). This has properly been taken as a mandate for all Christians to spread the gospel of Christ to everyone. This includes both concepts of salt and light. We are to do as much good in the name of Christ as we can, and we are to share the light of the gospel with as many as we can.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

THE PRESENTATION OF THE LORD Malachi 3:1-4; Hebrews 2:14-18; Luke 2:22-40

God will send His messenger, a promise that had an early and partial fulfillment in John the Baptist, but awaits a later and complete fulfillment when Elijah (4.5) will prepare the way of the Lord, . . . the Messenger of the covenant whom they desired. The irony here is that when He later arrived (His First Advent), the nation of Israel did not delight in Him but crucified Him instead. In verse 3.2-4 The day of His coming will be the Second Advent. The Lord will come in judgment on sin, and who will be able to stand? This purifying ministry, pictured by Christ's cleansing of the temple, awaits final fulfillment at His Second Coming. The sons of Levi (priests) will be purified so that they can make offerings of holiness and righteousness that are pleasant to the LORD, as in the days of old.

The Gospels proclaim it is the Precursor, St John the Baptist who was born 6 months before Jesus, that God sent to prepare His way. Putting these evangelical facts together, we can comprehend the words of the Prophet Malachi. The Lord God promised that He would send a Precursor to prepare His way. Since there is only 6 months between the birth of St John the Baptist and Jesus it is clear that the prophecy meant that suddenly after the Precursor, the Lord Himself will come. So, soon after the Baptist's birth, God entered His temple.

The Glory of the Lord will appear in the temple, signifying the coming of Christ to the temple to clean it of all idolatry and corruption. But before he does this, he will come to fulfil the law. That is what we celebrate today, the coming of the Lord to the temple and presenting himself in the temple.

Mary comes to the temple with Joseph bring the baby Jesus. This feast is also regarded as the feast of the purification of Mary in the temple.

The words of the prophet Malachi are fulfilled in the poor parents presenting their firstborn son along with their humble sacrifice of two turtledoves. (Now I am sending my messenger- he will prepare the way before me; And the lord whom you seek will come suddenly to his temple; The messenger of the covenant whom you desire-see, he is coming! says the LORD of hosts. Malachi 3.1) The mother of God - the Theotokos, in no need of ritual purification - and her husband did not set themselves above the Law.

The Gospel of Luke speaks of Anna the Prophetess and Simeon who praise the coming of the Lord to the temple. In Redemptoris Mater, Pope John Paul II wrote that Mary heard in Simeon's words something akin to a second Annunciation, "for they tell her of the actual historical situation in which the Son is to accomplish his mission, namely, in misunderstanding and sorrow. While this announcement on the one hand confirms her faith in the accomplishment of the divine promises of salvation, on the other hand it also reveals to her that she will have to live her obedience of faith in suffering, at the side of the suffering Savior, and that her motherhood will be mysterious and sorrowful.-

After celebrating the Nativity of our Lord, with its splendor in both the Church and the popular culture, it would be easy for one's mind to drift and overlook the significance of the fortieth day after the Lord's birth. The Catholic Church gives very significant importance to this feast.

What is the real significance of the presentation of the Lord in the Temple? According to the Mosaic law a mother who had given birth to a man-child was considered unclean for seven days; moreover she was to remain three and thirty days "in the blood of her purification"; for a maid-child the time which excluded the mother from sanctuary was even doubled. When the time (forty or eighty days) was over the mother was to "bring to the temple a lamb for a holocaust and a young pigeon or turtle dove for sin"; if she was not able to offer a lamb, she was to take two turtle doves or two pigeons; the priest prayed for her and so she was cleansed. (Lev12.2-8).

The "just and devout" man of Jerusalem who according to the narrative of St. Luke, greeted the infant Saviour on His presentation in the Temple (Lk 2. 25-35). He was one of the pious Jews who were waiting for the "consolation of Israel" and, though advanced in years, he had received a premonition from the Holy Ghost, Who was in him, that he would not die before he had seen the expected Messiah. This promise was fulfilled when through guidance of the Spirit he came to the Temple on the day of the Presentation, and taking the Child Jesus in his arms, he uttered the Canticle Nunc dimittis (Lk 2.29-32), and after blessing the Holy Family he prophesied concerning the Child, Who "is set for the fall, and for the resurrection of many in Israel", and regarding the mother whose "soul a sword shall pierce, that, out of many hearts, thoughts may be revealed".

Practical Conclusion
Jesus is brought to the temple to fulfil the law. Later in his life Jesus spends lot of time in the temple and on one occasion purifies it of all sorts of worldliness that had entered the temple. On our part visiting a church or a sacred place must evoke in us the sentiments of love, devotion, adoration and prayer in us. This helps our soul to direct attention to heavenly things in spite of living in the midst of worldly affairs.

Jesus is the complete fulfilment of the Law and the Prophets. Jesus once had asked his disciples, who do the people say that "I am?- Some say Elijah, Jonah and others says one of the prophets. Jesus fulfills in us a great role of the saviour. He leads us, guides us and inspires us in our daily tasks and works.

When we have Jesus with us, we have fulfilled the law. Jesus is above the law himself as he noted often during his life that "the son of man is the Lord of sabbath- (Mt 12.1-8).

This is day also is dedicated to the Religious men and women for their consecration through the vows. Candlemas Day is another name for the feast of the Presentation of the Lord. Forty days after His birth, Mary and Joseph brought Jesus to the temple for the rites of purification and dedication as prescribed by the Torah. According to the Book of Leviticus (12.1-4), when a woman bore a male child, she was considered "unclean- for seven days. On the eighth day, the boy was circumcised. The mother continued to stay at home for 33 days for her blood to be purified. After the 40 days, the mother and the father came to the temple for the rite of purification, which included the offering of a sacrifice - a lamb for a holocaust (burnt offering) and a pigeon or turtledove for a sin offering, or for a poor couple who could not afford a lamb, two pigeons or two turtledoves. Note Joseph and Mary made the offering of the poor (Lk 2.24).

We also remember our parents presenting us at church for our baptism. We were dedicated to God, and given the name, "Christian.- We, too, received a lit candle from the paschal candle, at which the priest said, "You have been enlightened by Christ. Walk always as a child of the light and keep the flame of faith alive in your heart. When the Lord comes, may you go out to meet Him with all the saints in the heavenly kingdom- (Rite of Christian Initiation). Therefore, as a light, each of us must bear witness to Our Lord.
Let this feast of the presentation of the Lord in the Temple enlighten us to be his servants and bearers of his kingdom.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

3rd SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME - YEAR A Isaiah 9.1-4; I Corinthians 1.10-13, 17; Matthew 4.12-23

Now we are carried forward to the coming of the Messiah. The northern territory of Israel, called the land of Naphtali, which had been brought into contempt by the invaders, will be made glorious (Galilee of the Gentiles was the Savior's boyhood home and the scene of part of His public ministry). Christ's First Advent brought light to Galilee. His Second Coming will bring joy to the nation and put an end to slavery and war. A precise prediction about the Messiah who would bring respite to the land of Naphtali, that is the land Galilee of the Gentiles.

Great Light
Through the Gospel of Matthew, we learn that Jesus choosing his first disciples moves quickly to his ministry (Mt 4.12-23). The prophet Isaiah announced a future of liberation and great joy for all of Galilee, through the image of light that dispels the darkness in which the people walk. The Gospel, quoting verbatim the same passage of the prophet Isaiah, presents Jesus as the Light thus fulfilling Isaiah's prophecy. He is the light that was promised to dispel the darkness of sin and to free man from the obscurity in which he is enclosed.

When Jesus heard that John the Baptist had been put in prison, He realized that this was a move to His own rejection. In rejecting the King's forerunner, the people were, for all practical purposes, rejecting the King also. But it was not fear that drove Him north to Galilee but was going right into the center of Herod's kingdom-the same king who had just imprisoned John.

In moving to Galilee of the Gentiles, He was showing that His rejection by the Jews would result in the gospel going out to the Gentiles. Jesus never thought of rejecting any people around him. He invited them all to listen to him. Those who rejected him perhaps did not know him or were doing so out of jealousy.

He moved to Capernaum by the Sea of Galilee, an area originally populated by the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali. From this time, Capernaum became His headquarters (Mat 4.14-16). Jesus' move to Galilee was a fulfillment of Isaiah 9.1,2. The ignorant, superstitious Gentiles living in Galilee saw a great light-that is Christ, the Light of the world. From then on Jesus took up the message which John had preached: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." It was a further call for moral renewal in preparation for His kingdom. The kingdom was near in the sense that the King was present.

He Chooses his Disciples

After which we find in Matthew's account the call of the disciples Peter and Andrew. This is the second time Jesus called them. In John 1.35-42 they were called to salvation; here they are called to service. The first took place in Judea; this one in Galilee. Peter and Andrew were fishermen, but Jesus called them to be fishers of men. Their responsibility was to follow Christ. His responsibility was to make them successful fishers of men. Their following of Christ involved more than physical nearness. It included their imitation of the character of Christ. Theirs was to be a ministry of character. What they were was more important than what they said or did. Just as with Peter and Andrew, we are to avoid the temptation to substitute eloquence, personality, or clever arguments for true spirituality. In following Christ, the disciple learns to go where the fish are swimming, to use the proper lure, to endure discomfort and inconvenience, to be patient, and to keep oneself out of popularity. In verse 4.20 Peter and Andrew heard the call and responded immediately. In true faith, they left their nets. In true commitment and devotion, they followed Jesus.

The call came next to James and John (Mt 4.21-22). They, too, became instant disciples. Leaving not only their means of livelihood but their father as well, they acknowledged the priority of Jesus over all earthly ties. By responding to the call of Christ, these fishermen became key figures in the evangelization of the world. Had they remained at their nets; we would never have heard of them. Recognition of the Lordship of Christ makes all the difference in the work we do. He is the King of everything we do.

What do we learn from these accounts of the call of these disciples? It is a radical following of Christ who calls us at any time. These disciples were at work and were busy. They could have clearly replied to Jesus saying, 'well, we finish our work, and go home and bid farewell to our family members and then come and follow you.' Nothing of this sort happened. They immediately followed Jesus without a second thought.

He calls us to "repent" or to reform our lives. He does not merely present a set of rules to follow; he does not demand a retreat from the world; he does not demand a monkish existence; he does not require a specific devotional life of prayer, sacrifices, and special practices. We cannot narrow down his call to any one of these forms. His call is more universal and demanding: a metanoia, a total change of heart, a complete transformation of one's life, a radical decision for God. Most of Jesus' parables are a challenge compelling his hearers to respond to his message. Such a radical decision means that the mystery of Jesus becomes our plan of life, our interpretation of life's meaning. It means that all our deepest questions about human life-the source of it, the sense of it, the model for it, its purpose, direction, goal, and hope-all of these are answered in the person of Christ.

Ministry

In verse 23 Matthew summarizes Jesus' public life and work this way: he proclaimed, "the Gospel of the kingdom, and [cured] every disease and illness among the people." He implies that the message of God's kingdom that Jesus brought is aimed at all people in all their dimensions; not only at their soul, but at the whole person, body and soul, their whole concrete, suffering existence. For Jesus our Lord is not only a preacher and adviser; he is also a healer and helper. And he is for all people, not only for the strong, healthy, capable, and righteous, but also for the weak, sick, incapable, sinning, and outcast. He does not take away all human failure, illness, and tragedy; but he begins to transform the curse of human existence into blessing even now.

Mission Today

Today all over the world missionaries and followers of Christ do the same work. They proclaim and serve. They heal through their service and alleviate sufferings through their generosity.

Concretely today Jesus calls us when we are at work. He will see that we are his instruments of service and Gospel. Through this Gospel we learn how to respond to Jesus' call. From the first disciples we come to know what real detachment for God's kingdom is.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

2nd SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME - YEAR A Isaiah 49:3, 5-6; I Cor 1.1-3; John 1.29-34

This first reding from Prophet Isaiah is a prediction about the suffering servant of God. These were prophecies uttered during the Babylonian exile to encourage the Jewish exiles to persevere in their trust in Yahweh, who would soon liberate them from Babylon, and consequently send them the long-expected Messiah, promised to Abraham.

The opening verses of this letter of St. Paul to the Corinthians have been chosen for the reading because they show the prophecy, read in the first reading, as fulfilled among the pagans, as well as emphasizing the purpose of the Messiah's coming: the sanctification and true enlightenment of all nations.

These verses from St. John's Gospel present John the Baptist as a symbolic example of a 'bridegroom's friend', as Christ's excellent and exemplary witness. The Baptist's pre-eminent witness was affirmed in two ways: firstly, regarding the content of his testimony and secondly with respect to its style.

After the celebration of the birth of John the Baptist and Christ the Lord, the liturgy shifts its focus on the mission of both. John the Baptist preaches the imminent arrival of God's Kingdom and predicts about the one who is going to baptise them with fire and the Holy spirit and confesses that he is not worthy to carry his sandals. Jesus on his part just begins to prepare for his mission choosing his apostles and disciples. Both are fully engaged in their task and the path for God's Kingdom is being prepared.

The preaching of John the Baptist was to reawaken in people the sense of urgency for something greater than what they have been seeking in their daily lives. There are a lot of ordinary longings in our lives, but there is one that is underlying all other longings. Ordinary longing signifies emptiness; it recognizes our limitations, our awareness of being incomplete.

John's story of the baptism is considerably different from what we find in the other three gospels because John wants to refute the view held by some that John the Baptist was superior to Jesus. Thus, this writer does not give us an account of the particulars of Jesus' baptism. Rather, he has John the Baptist give testimony to the meaning of the event. Almost the entire reading is composed of the Baptist's words, which clearly say that the revelation of Jesus as the Lamb of God was the sole purpose of John's mission. The gospel writer also concentrates on demonstrating that Jesus is indeed the servant of God described in the servant songs of Isaiah.

"Behold the Lamb of God"
This phrase "The Lamb of God," John used twenty-nine times in the book of Revelation, and it has become one of the most precious titles of Christ. It sums up the love, sacrifice, suffering, triumph and final victory of Jesus Christ. While some think that John's use of the term "Lamb of God" for Jesus may refer to the Passover lamb, the primary reference here is to the Suffering Servant who is described as like a lamb led to the slaughter. The Passover lamb had no connection to sin, yet for the sins of the people it was slaughtered; in the same way the Servant bore the guilt of us all and who takes away the sin of the world.

Atonement
After expulsion from the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve faced a devastating future. Having opened the door to mortality and temporal life for us, they had closed the door to immortality and eternal life for themselves. Due to a transgression they had consciously chosen obeying the temptations of the evil one, they now faced physical death and spiritual banishment, separation from the presence of God forever. What were they to do? Would there be a way out of this plight?

Unfortunately, as a symbol of genuine repentance and faithful living, the ritualistic offering of unblemished little lambs didn't work very well, as so much of the Old Testament reveals. The moral resolve that should have accompanied those sacrifices sometimes didn't last long enough for the blood to dry upon the stones or on the temple altar. They did remember they were to regularly offer for a sacrifice unto God a pure, unblemished lamb, the first male born of their flock.

According to Old Testament law, animals were used as a blood sacrifice for sins. This ritual was used to demonstrate to the Israelites the seriousness of their sins. The blood was shed to pardon the sin. But the blood from animal sacrifices could not actually remove the sin. A lamb without defect was one of the acceptable animals that was used for this purpose (Lev 4.32). It was necessary for the Israelites to go to the priest time after time to sacrifice animals to pardon their sins.

The real Sacrificial Lamb
In Jesus we find the real sacrificial lamb who takes away the sins of the world. He is the one who is going to redeem mankind from sinfulness. The real sacrifice offered on the Cross. That is why John boldly calls Jesus "the Lamb of God", who takes away the sins of the world.

When John the Baptist baptized Jesus, John witnessed the Holy spirit descending on Jesus declaring Him to be the Son of God. John knew that Jesus was the Messiah that had been prophesied in the book of Isaiah 53.7, "He was led like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth." There are over 100 prophecies in the Old Testament predicting the coming Messiah. The Jews were awaiting His arrival. John recognized Jesus as the Messiah, the Son of God, and the person that would fulfill the role as the lamb sent by God to be both the Passover Lamb and provide the blood sacrifice for sin.

During Jesus' 33 years of life on earth, living and experiencing everything that man experiences, He lived without sin. This made Him the pure and spotless lamb that was without defect - a perfect sacrifice. Heb 2.17 says, "For this reason he had to be made like his brothers in every way, in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God, and that he might make atonement for the sins of the people." Jesus Christ, by dying on the cross, nailed all of our sins to the cross (Colo 2.14), cleansed us from a guilty conscience (Heb 10.22), freed us from condemnation and from the grip of sin over our lives (Rom 8.1-2), and assured those of us who believe in Him to have everlasting life with Him in heaven (Jn 3.16).

God sent Jesus into the world to be a one-time sacrifice for all sins. Heb 9.24 says, "For Christ did not enter a man-made sanctuary that was only a copy of the true one; he entered heaven itself, now to appear for us in God's presence."

This is the Sunday that promises us that Christ is the one who comes to save us and is already here saving us always. The Sacraments are the very presence of Christ amidst us and who helps us to offer our daily lives to him so that he can purify us with his blood. The Holy Eucharist is what cleanses us from our sinfulness with his body and blood offered in the Holy Communion.

Takes Away the Sin of the World
Salvation doesn't cost us anything; it's free for all who believe the gospel. Discipleship, however, does cost us something. Following Jesus is often not easy. Being a disciple requires making choices-to love and honor God, to treat people for what they are-fellow imagers of God that he loves and wants to bring into his family through the gospel. Think about Jesus's own life. It wasn't easy. As St. Peter affirms, "Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps" (1 Pet 2.21). Jesus lived a life of sacrifice. He put God first, followed by his "neighbor" (everyone else): "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the great and first commandment. And a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments depend all the Law and the Prophets." (Mat 22.36-40) Jesus lived this way not so God would love him or be happy with him. God loved Jesus already, long before he ever came and "did works" (performed) to fulfill the covenant. He loved Jesus "before the foundation of the world" (Jn 17.24). Jesus came to liberate us from our sinfulness and take away that scar of the evil one.

During this week we need one thing on which to focus our attention, that is on Jesus. John the Baptist wants us to recognize Jesus is the only one who can lead us to God's Kingdom. Mere repentance preached by John the Baptist allows us to accept Jesus; but it is Jesus who gives us that eternal kingdom through his own life and grace.

The suffering servant Jesus is beginning his journey of redemption of mankind. He begins to impact even John the Baptist's disciples who come to him to see and find out all that is about true kingdom of God.

It's easier to think about our wishes and wants: our favorite food, a winning team, a good grade, a nice car or house, good clothes. Those things are fairly easy to attain, but they don't make any real difference in our life; they quickly prove their shallowness.

On a deeper level, we desire health and life, we long for loving relationships, and for the good of those whom we love. We might regard those as "natural sacramentals," signs or foretastes of the goodness God desires for us. As sacramentals, the objects of our longing can lead us to our depths. But they also bring the danger of becoming goals in themselves, even transforming themselves into idols by becoming the only things we strive for.

Our hearts are restless until they rest in God. That is what we call the fundamental and eternal longing that cannot be satisfied with the ordinary things of life. Jesus the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world gives us the real meaning of life and helps us to transcend the trivial things of this world so that we fix our attention and focus on God alone.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

BAPTISM OF THE LORD Isaiah 42:1-4, 6-7; Acts 10:34-38; Matthew 3:13-17

The servant mentioned in the first reading in general is Israel, God's chosen people. But there are many individualized characteristics in these servant songs that seem to indicate one individual who represents the collective Israel. Only in the New Testament do the scripture writers identify Jesus as the individual fulfillment of these servant prophecies. Jesus is the Son of God, and called servant of God. He is the one who brings liberation and freedom. Through out the advent season we reflected that the one who comes in the name of the Lord is going to bring prosperity and freedom to the house of Israel.

Good to note how the first reading begins: "Here is . . . / my chosen one with whom I am pleased, / Upon whom I have put my spirit." The Hebrew word for spirit is ruah (that can also mean wind or breath). The image is that of a force or power of God enabling his servant to act in a manner beyond human capability. It is seen as the power given to the long-awaited Messiah.

It needs to be pointed out that Jesus did not need the baptism of John. John was baptizing as an external sign of interior repentance. Jesus had no need to repent. But, nonetheless, He comes to John. John resists at first but Jesus insists. Why did He receive baptism?

Accepting the baptism of John, Jesus affirms all that John had said and done and affirms his sacred role of preparing the way for Jesus and for a new era of grace. Therefore, the Baptism of Jesus acts as a bridge between the Old Testament prophets (of which John was the last) and the New Testament era of grace and truth, and John again we notice is the first prophet of the New Testament.

Second, it has been said that when Jesus entered the waters of baptism, He was not baptized by the waters, rather, His Baptism was one in which all the created waters of this world were, in a sense, "baptized" by Him. Entering into the waters, Jesus sanctified water and poured forth His grace making all water the future source of salvation.

Baptism of Jesus was an epiphany and was a moment of manifestation. As He emerged from the waters, "Heaven was opened, and the Holy Spirit descended upon him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from Heaven, 'You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased.'" This manifestation of the sonship and divinity of Jesus took place in a physical, audible and visible form so that all present would know, without question, that Jesus was the Son of the Father. Thus, His baptism is a way in which the Father introduced His Son and His Son's mission to the world. This mission was to begin immediately and would culminate in the resurrection of the Lord.

Just when the Baptist's activity seems so successful, it is "then" that Jesus first appears on the scene in a surprising turnabout. John has said that the one who is to come will baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire. Instead, Jesus comes seeking to be baptized by John. Matthew alone seeks to address the problem by having John attempt to avoid Jesus' request. If, after all, baptism has to do with repentance and with bearing fruit that befits righteousness, why should Jesus have to be baptized? But the threefold reference to baptism in this passage and Jesus' response to John both serve to emphasize the importance of this event coming at the beginning of this narrative of the good news about Jesus.

Jesus says that this baptism must take place to "fulfill all righteousness," and with his words the reader begins to realize that righteousness has to do with much more than simply human ethical response, but rather has to do with the whole plan of God in this one who comes as savior, and thus is a sign of Jesus' obedient submission to God's marvelous grace. The unique reference to the opening of the heavens "to him" and the clear public announcement of God's good pleasure name Jesus as God's beloved Son (Mark says, "You are...."; Matthew writes, "This is....") and mark this event as revelatory of God's presence and approval.

What do we learn from this feast of the Baptism of the Lord? First truth is that we too are baptised with the same Spirit of the Lord.

We are baptized into his very life
We are grafted to Christ Our Lord. Remember the parable of the vine and the branches. We become the branches of Christ who is the vine. Unless we are one with Christ the Lord, we are not going to bear fruit that will last.

We become Children of God
In John 1.12 we find an excellent expression. All who receive Christ through faith become children of God. This is described using the Greek term exousia, often translated as a "right" or an entitlement. There are spiritual hounors given to all believers, simply based on being part of that family. However, this word also implies the power to do something. Becoming a child of God doesn't simply result in privileges, but spiritual power. A name, legal documents, a conversation, is a symbol of that person. The "name" of Jesus is not a magical formula. "Faith in the name of Jesus" means trust in His person, His sacrifices, and his salvation. This is not for everyone, however. This verse specifies that this power or right is only extended to those who receive him especially through baptism.

We are the Temple of the Holy Spirit
In his letter to the Corinthians St. Paul boldly confesses that we are the Temples of the Holy Spirit (I Cor 6.19).

All of us become brothers and sisters in Christ Jesus

We are all related to one another through the sacrament of Baptism. This relationship is far beyond how we are related to one another within our families. This is a spiritual relationship that helps us understand the great mystery of God who has adopted us as his children and hence we are related to one another as brothers and sisters in Christ our Lord.

Moreover, we connect ourselves with the whole lot of holy people and Saints as our big family through the baptismal grace of Christ. Because of our baptism we are saved; yet like Jesus, we must live out that salvation now in this world like all those saints and holy people lived their grace sharing and helping people around them. This same Holy Spirit was given to us at our baptism; that Spirit empowers us to follow in the way of Jesus with great confidence as real children of God; that same Spirit urges us to fulfill our mission by submitting to the will of God as it comes to us naturally in our ordinary Christian lives and become holy as our Heavenly Father is Holy.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

EPIPHANY Isaiah 60.1-6; Ps 72.1-7; 10-14; Eph 3.1-12; Mat 2.1-12

Epiphany is a wonderful feast that gives us an indication how God chooses his representative from all walks of life. These three kings traveling from far East come to Jerusalem to worship the newborn King. Their travel was harsh with all kinds of hurdles and the most difficult and concerning hurdle was King Herod. They over came all these hurdles to come and worship and present their gifts to the King. The star guided them to the place where Jesus was.

Why did God reveal Jesus to the Magi? We know the story of the Magi coming to worship Jesus very well. But have you ever stopped to wonder why God revealed Jesus to the Magi and not the "Evil and the Great" King Herod? God has his ways of revealing His greatness through insignificant ways to ordinary people.

Who were the Magi? Very little is known about the Magi. Matthew doesn't even record how many of them there were. All the Bible tells us is that they came from the East to Jerusalem. The number is unknown.

It is accepted that the Magi were a priestly caste from Persia once a mighty country where modern Iran and Iraq are now located. They were probably astrologers. In the second century, church father named Tertullian suggested that these men were kings because the Old Testament had predicted that kings would come to worship the Messiah. Tertullian also concluded that there were three kings based on the number of gifts mentioned, gold, frankincense and myrrh.

It is in the sixth century, someone decided that their names were Melchior, Baltazar and Gaspar. And the term Magi is the base from which our modern words "magician" and "magistrate" are derived. The Magi, in the eyes of the Jewish people to whom St. Matthew wrote his Gospel, had two explanations against them.

The first explanation against the Magi was that they were Gentiles - Persians to be precise. After all weren't the Jews alone God's chosen people. But the second and more important explanation against them was that they were astrologers. And astrology was expressly forbidden - on pain of death - in the OT. (Dt 18.9-14) So why did God reveal himself to astrologers?

I can think of three reasons why God revealed Himself to the Magi because Christ came not only for the chosen ones, but to all nations to preach the Gospel for all nations

First of all, God revealed Jesus to the Magi to show us that the Gospel - that Jesus' birth heralded - is for all nations. This was well predicted by Isaiah the prophet long ago.

It is not just to the select few righteous people in the world. We don't have to wait until we are living a "morally good life" before God seeks us out. If moral perfection was God's criteria, I doubt any of us would be sitting in church today.

God accepts us "sinners and saints alike" - and these Magi were perhaps not living a good life? Or had their own ambitions? Were they just rulers? Were they free from violence?
The Magi sought Jesus. The second reason - that I think God revealed Jesus to the Magi - was that the Magi were SEEKING God despite being not chosen people. The Magi sought Christ out to worship him. God honours a spirit within a person that SEEKS God. We have examples in the Gospels when Jesus met with the Siro Phoenician woman and Samaritans who confessed their full faith in him.

We won't get everything right - but if we have a right heart God will honour us

And God reached out to the Magi by a Star.

But that wasn't a chance Star - God had ordained and it had been prophesied over a millennium earlier by Balaam the prophet when he said - referring to Jesus: "I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not near. A Star will come out of Jacob; a sceptre will rise out of Israel (Num 24.17)

The third reason is the very attitude of the Magi because they were docile, and they had several right moves in the direction of God. They obeyed the ordinary revelation of God manifested through a star. The first of these right attitudes was that they were obedient to the guidance of God. They weren't too big to follow the star. As St. Matthew records them saying: They weren't star gazers - they put their beliefs into action. And even though they didn't know the destination they were prepared to step out in faith. Following the leading of the Lord can be quite risky and it can be time consuming. Their faith was so strong that they could overcome all kinds of hurdles and dangers on their way.

The Magi probably had to go from Persia to Jerusalem - a journey of a good 1000 miles - on foot and travelling with camels. Even though the Scripture narrative shows us that their arrival was quick, but then given the distance they had to travel and must have taken many weeks to arrive at Bethlehem.

Scriptural References
By this moral story Matthew shows how Christ is the fulfillment of these prophecies. Thus, in the Book of Numbers, Balaam prophesies: "A star shall advance from Jacob" (Num 24.17). Also, Isaiah prophesies: "Caravans of camels shall fill you . . . / All from Sheba shall come / bearing gold and frankincense" (Isaiah 60.6). Again, Psalm 72 (vv. 10-11) foresees: "The kings of Arabia . . . shall bring tribute. All kings shall pay him homage, all nations shall serve him." Finally, Micah praises Bethlehem: "You, Bethlehem . . . From you shall come forth for me; one who is to be ruler in Israel" (Micah 5.1). In sum, Matthew uses this popular legend to show the fulfillment of all these prophecies. Also, this passage shows the mind of Matthew as proclaiming Christ the Savior of the Gentiles. Matthew's Gospel was completed after 80 ad. At that time the infant church was growing fast in the Gentile world-in Syria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Asia Minor, and Greece. In this context the Magi were representatives of these people, who had come to believe and worship Christ.

Today this great narrative of Matthew must provoke us to take the Gospel to all nations through our lives lived in witness to Christ. The witnessing could happen in our neighbourhood families, in the place of work, in our society, during a celebration etc. There are multiple opportunities for us to evangelize and proclaim the life of Christ's kingdom here on earth.
Life is a journey of faith. Faith is what makes us children of God. All are invited to this great experience of having an encounter with Christ our Lord, along with Mary and Joseph. Let us bring all our talents, time, resources, pains and sorrows to offer them to Christ. He will make us return to our daily life through another better way as did the Magi who got back to their country through a different route.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

MARY MOTHER OF GOD - SOLEMNITY Numbers 6:22-27; Galatians 4:4-7; Luke 2:16-21

God gave to Mary a very special privilege be Theotokos- Mother of God Himself. Mary becomes the Tabernacle of God here on earth as she bears in her womb the Son of God. The Holy Trinity, the undivided unity becomes incarnate in the person of Jesus in the womb of Mary. That is why she is the Mother of God.

The Gospel today presents Mary as the mother of Jesus: The shepherds "found Mary and Joseph, and the infant lying in the manger." Why did the shepherds find Jesus and not others? They were meek and humble of heart, we can hear the words of Christ himself "learn from me for am meek and humble of heart". Shepherds worked hard to earn their living. Their task was to protect the sheep, lead them to pasture, accompany them in their perilous journey. Jesus would do the same to his own people, he would accompany them, lead them, pasture them, and protect them from predators.

And then adds: "Mary kept all these things, reflecting on them in her heart." On this day as we begin the first day of the New Year, it should be a moment to reflect in our heart. Mary kept all these things in her heart. Its an invitation to all of us to keep all the things in our heart; that is being grateful to God for the past year and look forwards with courage and strength to the new year of challenges and difficulties.

This passage is an incisive choice for this feast of the Mother of God, for it includes the two outstanding reasons why Mary is our mother and our model. First, Mary is the mother of Jesus, by whom we are all made God's children. As mother of Jesus, she is preeminent of all God's creatures. As "Mother of God" she is the mother of God's children. And secondly, Mary is the exemplar of faith. As she reflected on the all that happened, she slowly discovered the meaning of God's way of salvation; as she continued to fulfill God's will, she became "our tainted nature's solitary boast."

As we are reflecting on the Gospel of Luke we find that throughout the Acts of the Apostles, Luke shows the early church behaving as Mary did, giving itself completely to Christ's mission and making time for discernment and reflection as it carried Christ into the world. Luke presents Mary as a symbol of the church so skillfully that we can almost miss his emphasis. Her freedom to serve Christ's mission, bring him into the world, and ponder the significance of his life became the pattern for both collective and individual discipleship. This is very well reflected in prayer and service of the faithful in the early church.

When we give ourselves over to Christ's mission in big ways and small, we offer Christ to the world in new ways. Today evangelization has taken a renewed enthusiasm among many missionaries. It is to preach Christ through prayer and good works as Mary did in the early church.

World Day of Peace
Today is the world day of peace (and the feast of Mary, the Mother of God). And this story exemplifies well a Christian approach to peace and solving social problems. We have to admit that Jesus did not produce any program for the renewal and transformation of social structures; he did not outline any political or cultural ethics; he has no practical answers for modern social ills; he has no detailed solutions for the grievances of one country against another or for territorial disputes. He does not even give an entirely clear statement on the morality of war or revolution. Therefore, Christians-even Catholic leaders-can have very diverse opinions about civil disturbances and revolutions within countries, about border disputes between countries, about practical solutions in Israel, Ireland, Afghanistan, North Korea, and India and in many violently unjust situations in African or South American countries.

How can we create peace around us? It is through self sacrifice. If Mary and Joseph were peace loving couple, then those who love peace become like Mary and Joseph.

In sending his disciples forth on mission, Jesus told them: "Whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace be to this house!' And if a son of peace is there, your peace shall rest upon him; but if not, it shall return to you" (Lk 10.5-6). Jesus' mission was to preach and teach the peace of God. When he was with the people, he always promoted peace among all types of people. He was friendly with the Samaritans, the Romans, the pagans etc. He never rejected anyone. This is a great example of Jesus Himself to all of us.

Christ, the Prince of Peace, does have an impact on peace in the world. One way is along the lines of the story we began with. For the whole thrust of Christ in the New Testament is toward the reformation of the individual. This reformation is accomplished not by law and order but by the free decision of the individual person. That is, Jesus does not set up social laws to bridle cruelty and injustice, for that achievement would still leave us with a cruel world. Rather Christ positively teaches justice, forgiveness and love, so that people and institutions might really be changed. The implication is that radical social action alone is not enough to cure our social ills; we also need compassionate and just human beings. What a change there would be in so many social and political crises if the values of Christ were taken seriously: his identification with the weak, poor, underprivileged, and oppressed; his teaching on forgiveness of enemies; removal of prejudice and superiority in political situations. Such is Jesus' way of reforming the social order-not by specific social movements or political systems but by the reform of the individual members and promoting peace wherever there is a possibility. Through his Beatitudes Jesus invited a special world order that will promote peace if we begin to realize how rich are these teachings and practice them. In his parable of the last judgement Jesus forcefully affirms that those who love the weak and oppressed will share his kingdom of peace (Mat. 25).

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

HOLY FAMILY - FEAST

Holiness is the integration that places God unambiguously at the centre of one's life and concern. Holy Family of Nazareth is a wonderful example for our daily life that placed God as their centre. Why this family is Holy? Because of holiness of all the three: Jesus, Mary and Joseph. God is Holy and He invites everyone to be holy as he is. The Holy Family lived a holy life bowing to God's will in every detail of their life. Jesus' whole concern was to do the will of the Father, Mary accepted God's will as fiat. Joseph surrendered to God's will because he was asked to take Mary as his wife and to take care of Jesus in the face of dangers the family faced right from the beginning of their family life.

Mary and Joseph are faithful disciples of Christ. He lived with them and they were transformed in life.

Ordinary life of Mary and Joseph transformed every bit of their intentions and experiences.
Celebrating the Sunday following Christmas as the Feast of the Holy Family, the Church encourages us to look to the Family of Jesus, Mary and Joseph for inspiration, example and encouragement. They were a model family in which both parents worked hard, helped each other, understood and accepted each other, and took good care of their Child so that He might grow up not only in human knowledge but also as a Child of God. Jesus brought holiness to the family of Joseph and Mary as Jesus brings us holiness by embracing us in His family. The Catechism of the Catholic Church gives the following advice to the parents: "Parents have the first responsibility for the education of their children. They bear witness to this responsibility first by creating a home where tenderness, forgiveness, respect, fidelity, and disinterested service are the rule. The home is well-suited for education in the virtues. This requires an apprenticeship in self-denial, sound judgment, and self-mastery - the preconditions of all true freedom. Parents should teach their children to subordinate the 'material and instinctual dimensions to interior and spiritual ones.'" The CCC adds: "Parents have a grave responsibility to give good example to their children."(CCC #2223).

Joseph's Docility
We have the gospel from Matthew. After the Magi had departed the angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph and instructed him to take the child and flee to Egypt.

It was such a difficult task for Joseph with all kinds of tensions surrounding he had leave for Egypt.

Joseph, acting with complete docility, rose up, took the Child and his Mother by night, and fled into Egypt (Mt 2:14). Thus, began the first of the persecutions that Christ Jesus would undergo on earth all throughout history, whether against Himself or against members of his Mystical Body.

It was the flight to Egypt that saved the little babe of Bethlehem. It was a very harsh journey and dangerous too. There were two main roads to Egypt. The easier road was also the more traveled one; it passed through Gaza and then ran south along the Mediterranean coast. The other road, less used and therefore the more prudent one, passed through Hebron and Bersabee before crossing the Idumean desert and entering the Sinai Peninsula. In either case, it would be a long trip of several hundred miles lasting from ten to fourteen days. This would be the safest route because of its rugged nature.

Before beginning this arduous journey, everything had to be done in haste. In Hebron or Bersabee (the latter about forty miles from Bethlehem), they could procure provisions before setting out across the desert. In that initial stage of the trip, they may very well have joined up with a small caravan, for it would have been almost impossible to travel that road alone. The oppressive heat, lack of water, and danger of bandits made it advisable not to cross the desert on their own. The historian Plutarch writes that, in 155 B.C., Roman soldiers making the same trip to fight in Egypt were more fearful of the hardships to be faced in the desert than of the battles to be fought ahead.

What we find here in this explanation the daring spirit of Mary and Joseph in taking this arduous journey to Egypt. It required strength, determination, courage, endurance and patience. Imagine a little baby had to travel a long distance with such a cold weather and uncertainly on the way because of robbers, violent people, dusty roads and at times no roads etc.

Let us compare all these situations to our own life. Today we have all kinds of comforts and conveniences in our surroundings. How can we celebrating the feast of Holy Family live a life of dedication discipline and detachment? How can we help our family members to understand that life is difficult, yet it is worth living?

Life is a journey and a challenge. Holy Family's journey opens us a very powerful theme of difficulties we face along our spiritual journey. It is a journey every member of a family must undertake. Its going to be harsh, difficult, with all kinds of uncertainties and insecurities on the way. The virtues of Joseph and Mary will help us traverse this terrain of our family life's journey.

Practical Conclusion
Today family life has become very difficult to live. In this modern world there are multiple concerns for the parents to take care of their children.

Work: Work has become the priority in every family as the modern society has pushed the members to earn more because they must spend more on their children, on food, clothing, home etc. Daily work also has made family members distance themselves as they must be away from home for their daily source of income.

Workload has created tensions between the children and parents as they must prepare for next days work. Hence, children feel neglected and abandoned. Parents scarcely get time to spend with their children and with one another. This becomes a vicious circle of activities and offers not enough time to relax and enjoy life.

Food: Family lives together must have at least one meal in common. The modern lifestyle does not allow most of the family members present for food in their families. Work and friends have taken all the time they have. If a family must be stronger it should have time to have food together. When preparing food and consuming food there is such a lot of reciprocal interaction that can bond the members together.

Prayer: Family that prays together lives and loves together. Prayer as we define it as recitation of psalms, Rosary, Angelus etc. All these prayers and many other types of vocal prayers including reading of the Holy Scripture can help members to understand life and all that comes with it.

Recreation: Today the word 'recreation' has become quite individualistic enjoyment. With our smart electronic gadgets recreation in common has lost its lustre and importance. We need to revive its sense especially in our families.

Let us ask the Holy Family to bless us with the grace and strength to live our lives united with our family members in happiness and pain; poverty and joy; sickness and health.
Let us end on a positive note. We can all find plenty of inspiration today for Christian families in the first part of this reading to the Colossians. "Put on then, as God's chosen ones . . . heartfelt compassion, kindness . . . gentleness, and patience." These are critical virtues in any family; the motivation for doing so is that by baptism we have been clothed in Christ (cf. Galatians 3.27), and so should put on these virtues that correspond to our new life in Christ. And because we are all very human, we need forbearance and forgiveness: "Bearing with one another and forgiving one another . . . as the Lord has forgiven you." I suspect husbands and wives know even more than I how necessary forgiveness is among spouses. Family life is such a close existence that it is bound to include offenses and human failures; it demands this Christian virtue again and again. "And over all these, put-on love, that is, the bond of perfection." And for our children, parents know that love is not taught by words; it is caught by them-in the home, more than anywhere else. God bless our families. They are the fount of our personality and of all our Christian living.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

CHRISTMAS - YEAR A

Christ is born. A long-awaited prophesy is fulfilled. Saviour has come, Emmanuel - God with us.

Each year when we celebrate this awesome Day and season of Christmas we are thrilled, and we expect something new will soon happen to us or something new is awaiting us. It has a very powerful message to all of us. The newborn King of the universe is among us brings always something new. A new initiative, new idea, new way to lead a better life, new person to meet who can enrich our life. But above all we need to know Jesus is the one who brings all things new to us. It's a deeply spiritual season to bring us back from our boredoms and darkness. The king of the Light is with us and its time to rejoice. He is the one who is opening our eyes to see the real light, the one who will make us walk and will cure our diseases and infirmities.

In the process of the Birth of Christ our Lord, we find the spirituality of "a knock at the door". Who is knocking at our door? Joseph seeking a place in the inn to make Mary comfortable as she is about to give birth to Jesus.

But there was a reply, no room in the inn. Very sad to know that there is no room in the inn for Jesus. He had to be born in a place, but there is nowhere to go.

Cold Night of indifference
Its indeed a cold night. We can just imagine if a newborn baby does not get enough warmth. The baby could become sick and weak. In the case of Baby Jesus, the animals must shelter this Royal little one. With their company to provide much needed warmth Mary and Joseph find great relief. Surely God stoops low to come from lightsome heaven to our war-torn, dark, cold, indifferent world. As He stoops, He stoops to the lowest place, being born not in a palace or even in a comfortable home. He stoops on to a manger. God will defeat Satan's pride with humility. All who will find Him this fateful night must also stoop. True, God is non-competitive as Bishop Barron says often in his teachings.

Humility
Even to this day, when one visits Bethlehem and wants to see the place of Jesus' birth, one must first enter the church through what is called the "Door of Humility." For security reasons, this door was built to be only about four feet high. One must stoop greatly to enter through it. Yes, we must stoop to find our God. The site of the birth is at the other end of the basilica, under the altar area. Here again, more stooping is required; down steep stairs, through another low and narrow door, and into the cave. To touch the spot, one must kneel and reach forward into a narrower part of the cave. Here Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, says the inscription. The only way to get there is to stoop.

Finding God
One of the best lessons we can learn from this very situation of Jesus born on a manger is to understand how we can find God in ordinary events of life. The whole of the Scripture tells us how God found ordinary people to communicate His message. There is no need for highly qualified atmosphere for God to communicate what He wants us to know. He manifested himself to shepherds, fishermen, children, poor and the sinners, tax collectors, Zacchaeus, the blind, the deaf, the dumb etc.

The Knock
Christmas is a time to find out who needs some comfort. It is our duty to seek and find out those who are in need of our help.

Jesus knocks at the door of our souls. He may knock at dawn, during the day or at midnight. Scripture says, Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come into him and eat with him, and he with me (Rev 3.20). An old song says, "Somebody's knocking at your door! Oh Sinner, why don't you answer?"

At Christmas one unique truth we learn is that the Lord comes always and meets us on various occasions. It is up to us to let him in or tell him there is no room in our inn.

There is a beautiful Christmas custom in Ireland. The centre piece of Christmas holiday in Ireland is the dinner. After the often-lavish meal the kitchen table was again set and on it was placed some bread and milk and the table adorned with the welcoming candle. If Mary and Joseph, or any wandering traveller happened to pass by they could avail of the hospitality.
If you will receive the gift of Him tonight and make greater room for Him in your heart, you will have victory and transformation in Christ Jesus. There will come to you the increasing gift of transformation into the very likeness of God. Tonight, is a night of gifts and Jesus stoops low to give us a priceless gift: the power to become children of God. Is there room in the "inn" of your heart? If there is one you have become the child of God already.

Reaching out to Others
Let us celebrate this Christmas with a great desire to reach out to Christ who is homeless, poor, naked, stranger, wanderer. When we can help someone in need our Christmas will be brighter, and its joy will last longer.

What is Christmas many may ask especially when the world has commercialized this festive season. For those who do not recognize Christ as their Saviour, Christmas Solemnity will probably does not bring any other meaning than sharing gifts and receiving gifts, see some colourful lights and pass on to the next year.

There is much to learn from Christmas. It's a gift, it shows us humility, manifests poverty, we learn from the shepherds, the ordinary people of village. That's exactly is the strategy of God who cares for the weak, the widow, the stranger, the abandoned and the lost.

Why did the Lord Jesus need to come from Heaven to earth and to be born in Bethlehem's manger? There was a three-fold purpose, and this is mentioned in Galatians 4.5, 6 and 7.

He came in order that we might be REDEEMED (verse 5). To redeem, in this case, means to deliver from the bondage and the curse of the Law. The curse of the Law is the penalty which comes because we have broken the Law, and we all have broken the Law, and therefore we are under the curse and are in danger of punishment. But Christ came to redeem us from the curse of the Law, and He did this by offering His life and shedding His blood on Calvary's cross (1 Peter 1.18-19). Thank God, every believer can sing: "Free from the Law, O happy condition, Jesus had bled, and there is remission "

He came that we might receive the FULL RIGHTS of sons (verse 5). God's purpose in the incarnation is that we might become sons of God, and this sonship is based upon redemption - "to redeem.... that we might receive....". The Son of God became the Son of man that we, sons of men, might become sons of God. Who, then, are the sons of God? They are those who have the Spirit of adoption in their hearts - compare Galatians 4.6 with 1 John 3.1.

He came that we might become HEIRS of God through Christ (verse 7). Compare Romans 8.16-17, where we are told that we are co-heirs with Christ. Because He shared our humanity, with all the consequent sufferings which this involved, we, by His grace and through faith in Him, are to share His glory. In the parable of Luke 15, the father said to his elder son, "My son, you are always with me, and everything I have is yours" (Luke 15.31).

Practical Conclusion
Christmas is a time of rejoicing, sharing, and a time to become aware of all the spiritual riches we have through Jesus our Saviour. It's a time too to know what we have; and what we can do, with what we have, for the glory and praise of God.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

FOURTH SUNDAY IN ADVENT, Isaiah 7:10-14; Romans 1:1-7; Matthew 1:18-24

The angel appearing to Joseph in his dream utters similar words of Isaiah Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son and they shall name him Emmanuel. Matthew wants to make it very clear to his community that God was acting in a very precise way to make people understand that he is the one who is directing the history of mankind. He will send His Son to liberate them from oppression and give them freedom from slavery.

It was foretold by the prophets and proclaimed throughout the whole of Sacred Scriptures that He would be the One who would fulfil and bring them to completion the promises made (II Sam 7). Our God will be Incarnated and born due to the generous willingness of the 'Virgin' who, from the very beginning of time, was chosen to be the Mother of the Savior.

What a prediction that has saved the world through the birth of Jesus the Son of God through the Blessed Virgin Mary.

During the reign of the evil King Ahaz, war broke out between Judah and Israel. Pekah, the king of Israel, entered into an alliance with the King of Syria (Rezin). The latter two went to Jerusalem to besiege it.

When Judah's King Ahaz learned of the coalition against him, his heart sank along with his people. He was an evil king and could not reasonably expect God's intervention for him or in fact doubted God could save him. God had not given up on Judah. God sent the prophet Isaiah to Ahaz to give him a promise of the perpetuity of Judah.

The message from Isaiah was one of comfort. Even though the kings of Israel and Syria formed a confederacy against him, God will intervene. Isaiah told Ahaz to ask for a sign to authenticate the promise from God. He refused. So, Isaiah gave a sign from God, "a young woman will conceive and bear a son, and shall call His name Immanuel".
God did not want to abandon Judah. The word "Immanuel" means God with us. The virgin's son was God manifest in the flesh. This sign was not fulfilled during the days of Ahaz. This is a promise that God will be true to the descendants of David. Judah will have a future. That future will be established through "Immanuel." This was a sign for the perpetuity of the nation.
The New Testament clearly saw this passage fulfilled in Christ. At the end of the genealogy of Jesus Matthew makes this statement, "So all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying: 'Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel,' which is translated, 'God with us'" (Mt 1.23).
Both the Old and New Testaments promise the coming of Jesus Christ. God keeps his word. God indeed came in flesh and was born of a virgin. He was supernaturally conceived without a human father, "Then Joseph, being aroused from sleep, did as the angel of the Lord commanded him and took to him his wife, and did not know her (did not have sex with her) till she had brought forth her firstborn Son. And he called His name Jesus" (Mt 1.24-25).

"Now the birth of Jesus the Messiah was like this" (v. 18a). Matthew began this Gospel by asserting that Jesus is "Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham" (1.1). Now he reasserts that Jesus is the Messiah. In his description of Jesus' birth, he gives none of the details about the manger or the shepherds that we find in Luke. His account of Jesus' birth focuses primarily on Joseph, through whom Jesus is the son of David (1.1-16). Message for us is that the promise is fulfilled and we believe and welcome Jesus in our life. The birth of Jesus was in a village, on a manger; since there was no inn available, he was born among animals.

"For after his mother, Mary, was engaged to Joseph, before they came together" (v. 18b). Jewish marriage starts with an engagement arranged by parents, often while the boy and girl are still children. Prior to marriage, couples begin a yearlong betrothal like marriage except for sexual rights. Betrothal is binding and can be terminated only by death or divorce. A person whose betrothed dies is considered a widow or widower. Here we find the courage of Mary, who accepted the will of God. Joseph had to endure secretly great anxiety.

"She was found pregnant by the Holy Spirit" (v. 18c). There are numerous stories in Greek and Roman mythology of such conceptions, but "it is most important that we do not lapse into paganism by....presenting Jesus as a demigod, half human by virtue of birth from a human mother, half god since begotten by a god. Christian doctrine affirms Jesus' full humanity and full divinity. A great challenge for both Mary and Joseph. Joseph's faith had to be like that of Abraham who trusted in God and put all his faith in him.

"Joseph, her husband, being a righteous man, and not willing to make her a public example, intended to put her away secretly" (v. 19)."But when he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream" (v. 20a). This is the first of three occasions in which an angel appears to Joseph in a dream. In each instance, the angel calls Joseph to action and Joseph obeys. Joseph's silence. Matthew does not record one word that Joseph says. In this first appearance, the angel commands Joseph to take Mary as his wife. In 2.13, the angel will tell Joseph to take the mother and child to Egypt to escape Herod's wrath. In 2.19, the angel will, at the death of Herod, tell Joseph to return to Israel. In a fourth obedience, after being warned in a dream (no angel this time), Joseph will go to Nazareth (2.23). There is total obedience on the part of Joseph. An obedience that demanded a lot of sacrifice on his part.

"Don't be afraid" (v. 20b). The angel will repeat these exact words to the women at the tomb following Jesus' resurrection (Mt. 28.5). Jesus will use the same words on several occasions (Mt. 10.31; 14.27; 17.7; 28.10). He is not to hesitate but is to wed Mary. Both of them are magnanimous accepting what God had planned for them.
"She shall bring forth a son. You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he who will save his people from their sins" (v. 21a). Mary's role is to bear a son, and Joseph's role is to name him. By naming him, Joseph will make Jesus his son and bring him into the house of David. Joseph in the Old Testament was the son of Jacob who rose to prominence in the kingdom of Pharaoh the king of Egypt. Joseph even though betrayed by his brothers becomes their rescuer.

The name, Jesus, "is the Greek form of the Hebrew Yehosua, which means 'YHWH is salvation'. It is related to the name Joshua--Moses' successor.
"For it is he who will save his people from their sins" (v. 21b). The first Joshua saved the people from their enemies; the second Joshua (Jesus) will save the people from their sins. Jesus was with the tax collectors and sinners most of the time and he said that he came to call back the sinners. It is therefore reassuring to see, at the outset, that Jesus has come to save us from our sins.

Practical Conclusion
How can we imitate the virtues of Joseph? : no complaint, no self importance, just obedience, fearlessness and silence.

One of the best things on this Sunday to learn to take courage in our lives no matter what comes and what goes away. Like Joseph we need to listen to God all the time. Joseph could have had a comfortable life if he wanted to do what he desired. But he obeyed God. To be sensitive to his message and promptings. One thing I repeat we learn from Joseph is silence. He accepts God's word transmitted to him through the angel. He does not utter a word, rather obeys and takes this challenge gratefully. Advent is a time of silence of Mary and Joseph, which can help us reap rich spiritual benefits. Joseph's obedience is remarkable in contrast with the disobedience of King Ahaz. Joseph's reliance on God and King Ahaz's reliance on worldly Assyrian Kingdom that destroyed him

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

THIRD SUNDAY IN ADVENT - A Isaiah 35:1-10 ; Psalm 146:5-10 or Luke 1:46b-55 ; James 5:7-10 ; Matthew 11:2-11

This Sunday is called Gaudete Sunday, a Sunday of rejoicing. "Rejoice with the joy of singing" says Isaiah. A true joy that is created when the Lord comes with recompense. He is the one who liberates and frees. What more? The eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf unstopped; then the lame shall leap like a deer, and the tongue of the speechless sing for joy. For waters shall break forth in the wilderness, and streams in the desert. All these things that happen to people and to the earth will bring joy and gladness unending.

Our Rejoicing
When we rejoice at something that we have or achieved, it lasts just for a while. There is another type of rejoicing that comes from the Lord, it is called the inner joy, spring of living water gushing from our heart because we are favoured by the Lord, that lasts forever. God is here. God will come. Isaiah offers assurance for present and for future. In the future, Isaiah asserts that God will act for the people to reverse oppression and deliver them. The prophet does not describe specific conditions of oppression but speaks in general terms in a direct address to the audience: God "will come and save you" (35:4b). When the Lord does something in our life it remains as a permanent mark throughout our life. It brings us joy unending.
God's arrival brings something more. When God comes, "the eyes of the blind and the ears of the deaf will be opened. Then a lame man will leap like the stag; a silent man's tongue will shout. Because waters will break open in the wilderness, and streams in the desert" (35:5-6). God's arrival transforms every inability into ability and every lack into miraculous abundance. God's coming brings the capacity to see and hear to those whose senses are starving for light and sound.

Can we see God in our lives? Is it possible that we are still blinded by the world and its temptations? When God brings us light and sound, it is our duty to offer our senses and our souls. Isaiah 35 invites us to reflect on this Advent season not only as God's coming in Christ, but also as our coming home. God comes. God is here. We leap and shout and sing. And together we walk home.

St. James invites us to be patient, like the farmer patiently waiting for the crop. It's virtually a long wait until the crop can be filled in the barn. When we look around us today, literally people lose patience. They cannot wait a second or a minute just to help someone else in need. Our attention to mass media has dulled our minds towards our neighbours. That is precisely what St. James mentions in this reading that we should stop grumbling against our neighbours and stop judging them. The real judge is God himself who is practically at the door. We need to strengthen our hearts and wait in patience for the Lord's coming.

In the Gospel of Matthew, we find a question from John the Baptist. He was unable to see what Jesus was doing as he was in the prison. So, he sent his disciples to find out what's happening.
Jesus comes on the scene as one who proclaims the kingdom of God, calls upon people to trust in God, heals the sick, and befriends tax collectors and persons labeled "sinners." It is little wonder that John, now sitting in prison with time to think, questions whether Jesus is the one to come or not. Jesus fits neither John`s expectations nor those of Jewish messianism in general. John's question in 11:3 is therefore totally understandable: "Are you the one who is to come, or are we to wait for another?"

Jesus speaks of his mission in one of the clearest statements in the gospels about it: "the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the poor have good news brought to them" (11:5).

Gaudete Sunday must evoke in us a great love and devotion to Jesus who makes all things new. Never in the history of mankind such revolutionary acts were seen or performed. Jesus is the Lord and God making history quite interesting and new. He is God himself, fully human liberating people from their bondage.

It's now our turn to imitate Christ in everything we do. St. Mother Teresa of Calcutta lived the example of Christ during her life time showing light to those who were in darkness, helping the lame to walk, taking care of the lepers and making the deaf understand what others wanted to communicate and many who felt that they were dead, were raised to life through her prayers and hard work as a missionary.

This kind of mission in imitation of Christ our Lord will bring joy to the one who shares his/her life with those who are less fortunate and helpless.

The alternative hymn we have for our liturgy today is the Magnificat of Mary. She was filled with gratitude to God and sang this hymn in praise to Him. My soul magnifies the Lord, my spirit rejoices in God my Saviour. When we help some one who is in need, we participate in the mission of God who is always keen on liberating his people from oppression. Mary went to help Elizabeth her cousin who was 6 months pregnant. It was a great joy for Mary to be of help to Elizabeth.

Let us rejoice then on this Sunday preparing for the coming of the Lord. May His love and mercy allow us to be stronger than ever in making others rejoice in what life offers them. At the same time, we keep our hearts open to God's infinite mercy that it may flow within us.


Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

SECOND SUNDAY IN AVENT - A Isaiah 11.1-10; Romans 15.4-9; Mathew 3.1-12

Lot of people today are interested in predicting what will happen in a few years from now. Some predict how the present poorly maintained ecological system would impact our environment and the entire planet. Others predict what's going to happen if there is a nuclear war among the nations. Many are interested to know what will happen in another 10 years from now. Most of these predictions may not be realized.

Today's first reading entirely reflects on how Isaiah predicted that Jesus is the new stock of Jesse will bring justice, understand the weak and help the poor. He will be able to defeat the wicked and help the needy and the lost.

The Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him; that is what we have seen in the Gospels, a spirit of counsel and of strength. He stood firmly against all injustice and corruption. His delight was to do the will of the Father, establishing His Kingdom here on earth.

In the Gospels we find Jesus judging the poor with justice, providing them everything they needed. He struck the wicked with the rod of his mouth and outwitted the Pharisees and Scribes.

Then Isaiah predicts that all animals will live in peace and harmony, that is going back to the very life of the garden of Eden. Wolf and the lamb, leopard with the kid, calf with the young lion and little child will guide them. There will be no harm done on the mountain of the Lord. All will be filled with the knowledge of God. Well, we have a fuller knowledge of all these prophesies fulfilled in the person of Christ the Lord because his kingdom was an everlasting kingdom for all, including the gentiles. Jesus invited all of people to listen to him and welcomed them with warmth and generosity.

Prophet Isaiah was optimistic of God's deliverance and his rule. He encouraged people who were dismayed but hopeful of the realization of God's kingdom.

In his letter to the Romans Paul affirms that whatever was written was for our instruction. He insists that the Sacred Scriptures help us to endure patiently all our trials and temptations. This in view of accepting Jesus Christ that we must live in harmony with one another. When we can accept Jesus our Saviour, we also show that Gentiles are called to fellowship with us. The invitation extends to all people to come to Jesus and be saved.

St. Paul reminds us that we have a history. It is the history of our salvation recorded in the Old and New Testaments - all of which was written for our instruction. It is there to encourage us and help us to endure the hardships we face. It also gives us a well-founded hope in what Jesus has promised!

Paul teaches us that we are a community of disciples who live lives of faith. We truly need the support of one another. And we must look beneath the appearances of others and discover the truth that lives within them.

John the Baptist appearing in the desert of Judah is a sign that his mission was to extend not only to the people of Jerusalem, but to the entire region. Most of the teachers and preachers appeared in Jerusalem, but John appeared in the desert. Jesus later appeared not only in Jerusalem but all over the entire Israel.

John's apparel of camel's hair and leather portrayed him as a prophetic figure like Elijah (2 Kgs 1.8) whom it was believed would return to herald the messiah (Mal 4.5). The diet of locusts and wild honey recalled the wilderness period when the newly escaped refugees from Egypt were being formed as a people by God in the Sinai. But locusts were also a symbol of divine judgment in scripture (Ex 10.12-20, Deut 28.42), as honey was a sign of promise and blessings (Ex 3.17). Perhaps John's diet signaled that the coming reign and its emissary, Jesus, would bring both judgment and promise upon the earth, a fact that is borne out in the rest of the gospel, that he said he came to bring fire on earth.

John the Baptist urges us all to repent and to change - especially from the dishonesty within ourselves. Few of us are people of complete integrity. Most of us are hiding something - and most of us want to appear better or more than who we really are. However, we must become disciples who aspire to honesty and integrity. We cannot be like the Pharisees and the Sadducees of today's Gospel. They came with everyone else to the Jordan - but their coming was only for the sake of appearances and to judge and to find fault with John. They were far from the conversion and repentance that John was urging. And, as such, they would not escape the wrath of God. For they would not be able to accept the truths, the gifts, and the salvation that Jesus came to bring!

John the Baptist affirms so strongly the power of God. He was convinced that God could raise children for Abraham from those very stones in the desert. He would not care the faithless pharisees and scribes who lived a life of luxury. What counts is not our appearance but the fruitful outcome of our life. Repentance requires that we be genuine in our approach to life and situations. If a tree refused to yield fruits, it will be cut down and thrown into the fire.

The readings of todays liturgy invite us:

To see in Jesus the saviour of mankind and the one who will not judge by our appearances. He will do justice to the poor and the weak. Jesus will gather the nations and that is what John says, 'gathering wheat into the barn.'

However, John clearly affirms that Jesus who will baptise people with fire will be their real saviour. Humility of John is evident when he says that he is unworthy to carry Jesus' sandals. John was a very powerful prophet and preacher. That is why people from Jerusalem, Judah and Jordan came to listen to him.

Let us celebrate this second Sunday in Advent with a resolution that will transform us. Looking at John the Baptist we must be inspired to repent and come back to Christ our Saviour. It is purely our decision, and no one can force it upon us.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

FIRST SUNDAY IN ADVENT - YEAR A Isaiah 2:1-5; Psalm 122; Romans 13:11-14; Matthew 24:36-44

We are in this holy season of Advent. It's a time for waiting for the Lord to come into our lives. We all wait for so many things to happen in our life. A little baby waits for her mother to come and feed her. Parents always wait for their children to return from school; a friend waits for another friend at home or at a location that they had decided to meet. Waiting for relatives to come; waiting for a bus, waiting in the airport for the flight, waiting patiently for our turn to meet a doctor etc.

But this waiting during Advent is a very special one for the chosen ones that their Lord will come to rule them. This is what Isaiah waited concerning Judah and Jerusalem. It was after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem a patient waiting for the fulfilment of God's promises to re establish the reign of God in Judah and Jerusalem was due.

The prophet elaborates stating that the people will climb the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob. It will be the desire of the people then to be instructed by the Lord. They would not heed any other earthly king's instruction.

The Psalm we sing during the Holy Eucharist will resonate the great happiness of people who long to go to the house of the Lord. The Psalmist then knew already that the city of Jerusalem was a well-built city by King David and he gathered all the nations together, all the tribes of Israel. But Isaiah's prediction came after its destruction.

St. Paul in his letter to Romans very clearly mentions that its time to wake up from sleep. When we are in sound sleep, we practically forget what's happening around us. We don't even know if there is any imminent danger around us. St. Paul's intention was to remind his listeners that they should wake up to their reality around them as he was preaching Christ the Lord of heaven and earth.

The Gospel of Mathew particularly attracts our attention. Jesus warns his disciples that it will be like those days of Noah when the Son of man comes. People will be busy with their worldly affairs, busy in their business, marrying and giving in marriage, eating and drinking and merry making. Well during the time of Noah people did not give heed to what Noah was doing. They perhaps mocked him for building that huge ark. Noah work was hard, first he had to build the ark, then gather all that was necessary to keep them alive during the predicted flood. Then he had to gather all kinds of animals and species in pairs to keep them alive on board.

The analogy of Christ's return being like a thief in the night is an important one, and we find it also used elsewhere (e.g. 1 Thessalonians 5:2). The imagery itself implies an arrival at an unexpected or surprising time, hence the exhortation to stay awake. As verse 44 says, he will come at an unexpected time.

Our waiting is manifested in our deep faith and hope we have. It is faith that instructs us to be awake.

What we should do then? Prepare our hearts, minds and our surroundings for the coming the Lord. He may come today, tomorrow or day after. It all depends on us how we prepare ourselves well for the day of the Lord.

Advent is a time to renew our spirit. We all know how tired we are because of our daily lifestyle. We tire ourselves working, spending time with our friends, earning, spending on things we desire, and gradually we get old without our awareness. What we need to do is to pause for a while and think of the real goal we have in our mind. What's that goal? Some material achievements? They are good in themselves, but greater than these achievements we need to aim at our personal joy in the Lord's coming to whom we need to give an account of what we have been doing.

We the faithful must stay vigilant and awake, knowing that Christ will return, though the timing remains unknown. The phrase "the day or hour," or even just the phrase "the hour," simply means the timing. It is not suggesting that the general time frame of Christ's return can be known in advance, but that the specific day or hour is obscure.
Judah and Jerusalem must be ready for the Lord's coming. They must be encouraged to wait in hope.

Paul inform the Romans that they have to wait for the Lord fully awake.

Jesus warning serves us better understand the uncertainly when the Lord will appear.

Jesus' return sudden and unexpected
He shares several examples to illustrate, beginning with an allusion to the days of Noah in verses 38 and 39. Jesus doesn't focus so much on the evil prevalent in that day, but instead focuses on the ordinariness of daily life: people are eating, drinking, and getting married. They have no concept that life as they know it is about to change radically, that their eternity is about to begin.

The scenario reminds me of Christmas time. We calendarize Christmas, or "Christ-Mass," because of the birth of a Savior. But, for the most part, the holiday is completely overtaken by the commercialism of the season. Advent that is just before Christmas has become the mecca of consumerism. Instead of preparing our souls, all these activities save our economy. There is nothing wrong with a strong, family-oriented celebration centered around gift-giving. I love Christmas as much as anyone else. However, I am thankful that the Lectionary organizers always start off the church year, the first Sunday of Advent, with the second coming of Christ: Jesus came once; Jesus is coming daily in our lives and will come again on the final day. It takes us back to the basics.

So, Jesus talks about the extraordinary happening in the middle of ordinary, everyday life. Jesus' return will be sudden; it will be unexpected. To illustrate, he gives a couple of examples from everyday life. Two farmers are working in the field; one is taken one is left behind. Two women are grinding wheat: again, one taken, one is left behind (vv. 40-41).

"Two men will be in the field; one will be taken and the other left. Two women will be grinding with a hand mill; one will be taken and the other left." (vv. 40-41)

In both settings, there seems to be little difference between the two men, or between the two women. They look the same on the outside. Yet, one heads to eternal life and one heads to destruction. In the blink of an eye. Everything changes. Without warning.

Our role is to be ready
Jesus says simply, "Keep watch..." (v. 42)
He gives an example involving home security. Back then they didn't have police as we do today. The military might protect the upper crust of society. But if you were middle class or lower, you were on your own. Jesus said, "If you knew when the thief was coming, you would be ready to catch them in the act." But since we don't know, we must maintain a state of readiness around the clock. So many people today have perimeter cameras up around their homes. When they go on holidays, they check their phones several times a day if there is any intruder in their home property. This will alert them, and they can have a control over the situation. Yes, keeping awake is the right word for ADVENT.

Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD

Recent photos of ongoing construction of Tiampo Memorial Hall at Carmel Hill - Canada: September 18th 2019

Dear Friends,
Here we go with the latest photos of the ongoing construction of Tiampo Memorial Hall at Carmel Hill - Canada. As we are nearing the end of summer, we have observed considerable work being completed. You will notice through these photos the packing of the outer walls of the hall with anti fire and anti weather proof material. The outer walls of the hall must be layered with at least 3-4 types of material before it is tiled to perfection. There is an addition to the hall building; a small boiler room construction, where wood chips will be burnt into a system to heat up the hall during the wintertime. At the same time a lot of work is going on inside the building; plastering, tiling of the floor, plumbing, and work of the kitchen. During these months we had the visitation by Rev. Fr. Johannes Gorantla OCD, the Definitor General who was appreciative of the work done. Fr. Alexander Braganza and Fr. Rajesh Madtha have been working very diligently to keep the campus ready for visitors and groups who come to pray and spend their time in spiritual activities.

click here for the photographs

BLESSING OF THE FOUNDATION OF MOUNT CARMEL SPIRITUALITY CENTRE - EDMONTON - CANADA

Dear Friends,
A long awaited day dawned on July 1st (Canada Day), 2019 at Mount Carmel Spirituality Centre - Edmonton - Canada. Fr. Mario Fernandes and Fr. Ivan Sanctis celebrated the Holy Eucharist and invited people to pray for the success of the new building of the Spirituality Centre and also asked a special prayer for Helen Chua Tiampo and Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza for their great initiative of this new project that will consists of 40 self contained rooms, a Hall, a big chapel with a capacity for 250 people, a residence of the Carmelite Priests (Monastery) etc. After the mass Fr. Mario Fernandes superior of the Spirituality cum Monastery (recently this existing structure and community has been canonically erected by the Definitory) blessed the foundation. There will be an Open House of information session on July 19th. A lot of money has already been spent to clear the trees and the mountain that gave way to this level space for the building. Please click the link below for the photographs. We are grateful to Fr. Mario and Fr. Ivan for their initiative and for the solemn blessing of the foundation. We are also grateful to Steve Creighton (Helen's Secretary), Darrell Wickstrom (Helen's Lawyer - Fasken Martineau), Pam Prior (KPMG), Kent Elliot (KPMG), Emmet McGrath (KPMG) for their suggestions on finances and their wholehearted support for this new venture of the Carmelites.

click here for the photographs

TIAMPO MEMORIAL HALL ALBUM NUMBER 7

Dear Friends,
These are the photos clicked during March-April 2019, springtime in Canada. A lot of progress of the construction of Tiampo Memorial Hall can be witnessed through these photos. You will notice through this album that a lot of interior design work will be accomplished in the following months. Due to incessant rains and other technical hurdles the exterior work slowed down dramatically in February and March, yet the intensity of the work is continuing. Frs. Alexander and Melvin Pinto have been not only catering to the continuous groups that visit Carmel Hill, but also doing the extra work of monitoring the progress of the hall. Ms. Helen Tiampo visited the site on April 14th with Fr. Rudolf and was very satisfied with the progress done so far. Mr. Steve Creighton has been very helpful to fix a few problems at the site with the assistance of the architect and engineers. We hope to complete the work in the coming months, but the exact date of completion is yet to be confirmed. Now that Fr. Rajesh Madtha the new community member has just joined Little Flower Monastery on June 15th, he will be contributing his share in shaping this place.

click here for the photographs

Rev. Fr. Johannes, Definitor General ending his Pastoral Visitation with the Inauguration of the new book

Dear Friends,
On May 14th Rev. Fr. Johannes Gorantla, Definitor General concluded his pastoral visitation in Canada with a fraternal gathering at St. Edmond's Church Rectory. During this concluding celebration Rev. Fr. Johannes encouraged all members to be faithful to Carmelite Charism and congratulated all for their selfless service and dedication. Fr. Jerald D'Souza, the Regional Superior made arrangements for a wonderful dinner and welcomed all members of Western Canada. We also remembered other members who could not be present for the occasion. The Definitor General highlighted some features of the Region especially focusing his attention on the two establishments; one at Carmel Hill-Little Flower Monastery that has been already canonically erected and the other where the process is on for canonically erecting the Mount Carmel Spirituality centre. He insisted that at all our places of pastoral ministry there should be minimum of 3 members present. This would be officially realized by April end 2020.

During this occasion Fr. Definitor General released the new book of Fr. Rudolf "Living in the Loving Castle" along with Helen Chua Tiampo.

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LIVING IN THE LOVING CASTLE, Canadian Carmelite Publication, Deroche (Canada, 2019), pp. xiv+174.

Rev. Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD has completed his new book on the Interior Castle of St. Teresa of Avila titled: Living in the Loving Castle. This is his 35th literary product. The book contains 27 articles methodically written scanning through Mansion after Mansion browsing through every chapter. These articles partially appeared on the Karnataka Goa Carmelite Province's Website during the V Birth Centenary Year of St. Teresa of Avila. Now this complete volume, can be termed as Commentary on the Interior Castle of St. Teresa is available in a book form Published under Canadian Carmelite Publication - Canada. The articles on the above-mentioned website received a lot of positive and encouraging feed back from many readers from all over the world. The book has 188 pages helping anyone for a smooth easy reading. Most Rev. Greg Homeming OCD, Bishop of Lismore - Australia has given his very positive short review printed on the back-cover page. Rev. Fr. Charles Serrao OCD (Provincial) has written a beautiful Foreword for the book. The book will be marketed mainly in North America and copies can be ordered from Little Flower Monastery - Deroche - Canada.

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HOLY WEEK AT MOUNT CARMEL SPIRITUALITY CENTRE AT EDMONTON

Dear Friends,
It was a great weekend beginning from Holy Thursday till Holy Saturday hundreds of pilgrims visited our Mount Carmel Spirituality Centre. Frs. Mario Fernandes and Ivan Sanctis organized the celebrations well and Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza presided over all the celebrations. On Good Friday there were approximately 1500 people visited the centre in batches beginning at 6.30 am till the early morning of the Holy Saturday for the Stations of the Cross devotion. The community members had to provide them all the facilities including arrangements for food and snacks. For the Holy Saturday vigil mass there were around 50 people present from the neighbourhood, as it is not a parish. People were also very curious to know the ongoing ground preparation works for the construction of our Spirituality centre.

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TIAMPO MEMORIAL HALL WORK PROGRESS ALBUM NO. 6

Dear Friends,
It has been a considerable time that we updated you on our ongoing construction of Tiampo Memorial Hall at North Deroche Road, Carmel Hill. The construction work slowed down during winter time especially in December 2018. Now that there the weather condition has improved, we see a lot of work in progress. You will notice over all construction work and in a very special way you see a small foundation has been put for the boiler. This facility is designed to cut the cost of heating system. It will work with chopped wood. The technology is simple, ecological, perennial and cost effective. It is enough that once in two months the chopped wood is loaded into the system and the boiler will work through without interruption and no need for any fuel or gas. The present system in the monastery works with propane gas and is expensive. This will be sorted out and both connections (wood and propane gas) will be in place in case there is an emergency. We had the pleasure of working with the community members especially Fr. Alexander Braganza, superior and director of the Institute, who has been monitoring the work as well as the security matters at the site throughout. We acknowledge special attention given by Steve Creighton whenever we ran into some trouble at the site. He has been very engaging in this process. More photos will be posted in the forthcoming album.

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TIAMPO MEMORIAL HALL WORK PROGRESS ALBUM NO. 5

Dear Friends,
Here I enclose Tiampo Memorial Hall album no. 5. The work has continued even during this winter due to better weather conditions. The wooden beams of the hall are getting in place. The wood which is imported from Germany is called CLT (cross laminated technology) has the resistance to climate fluctuations and durable for 150-200 years. They are chemically processed and machine glued together. Each beam has approximately 8 layers of wood pressed together with a type of glue that does not allow moisture or heat penetration. With CLT wooden beams even 12 story buildings are erected in North American continent. This CLT technology is safe and fire resistant. Please click below this link for more information on the type of buildings built here in North American continent:

We had a rare visitor to our property, Fr. Ivan Sanctis from Edmonton community who was here for a few days for his annual retreat. The donor Ms. Helen Tiampo too visited the site and was very happy with the progress of the work. Please click the link below for photos. Its a huge album with photos taken on different occasions.

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TIAMPO MEMORIAL HALL WORK PROGRESS ALBUM NO. 4

Dear Friends,
This is Album number 4 of Tiampo Memorial Hall under construction at Carmel Hill (Canada). The mounting of wooden walls has begun. The wood that is needed for the entire hall has already been stacked in the compound. A lot of space cleared around the hall is for parking lots approximately for 200 cars. We are grateful to Fr. Alexander Brangaza (Superior) and Fr. Melvin Pinto for sacrificing their time both in managing the programs at Little Flower Monastery and monitoring the work that is taking place at the construction site. Please click the link below for latest photos.

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TIAMPO MEMORIAL HALL WORK PROGRESS ALBUM NO. 3

Dear Friends,
Here are the latest photos of the ongoing construction of Tiampo Memorial Hall at Carmel Hill, Canada. We have obtained the basic necessary permissions from the Fraser Valley District and the foundation of the Hall is almost complete. We had the great privilege of having Helen visit the site on September 10th. Fr. Alexander Braganza and Fr. Melvin Pinto offered us their wonderful hospitality in the Monastery. The ground Engineer of Alfred Horie Constructions, Mr. Dennis Cardin showed us the site and explained in detail how this hall will be constructed. The next move of the construction of the Hall will be raising of the walls. The material for this second phase has already arrived from Germany. These photos clicked by Rev. Fr. Alexander Braganza OCD, Superior, Little Flower Monastery.

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Jivitamruth series in Daijiworld 24X7

Dear Friends,
Jivitamruth series in Daijiworld 24X7 from Episode 219-269, a total of 50 Episodes on Christian Spirituality will be transmitted live twice a day from the second week of September till beginning of December. The hosts of this series are Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza (Canada) and Mr. Denis Mascarenhas (Oman - Muscat). The episodes will be relayed from Monday till Friday every week from 7 am till 7.30 am and evening 7 pm till 7.30 pm.


Please click here to watch the entire series of Jivitamrut on Daijiwork24X7

TIAMPO MEMORIAL HALL WORK PROGRESS ALBUM NO. 2

Dear Friends,
Here in Canada we have a wonderful hot summer. It's really great to have the Sun with his full force on us during this time of the year, especially this year. The work at Tiampo Memorial Hall at North Deroche Road is in full swing. With all the initial hurdles overcome we have a temporary building work permit thanks to the hard work of our Architect John Clarke, Darrell Wickstrom and Steve Creighton. The basic foundation work is almost complete. You can see the infrastructure being slowly in up word swing process. Due to summer holidays the work is a bit slowed down but will certainly pick up as soon as the summer holidays are over. A lot of underground work is complete and now we wait for the wooden structures to arrive from Germany. You can still see a lot of concrete work that is completed. Huge road work is in progress and a big parking lot is being constructed. You can see the huge pile of stones dug out of the foundation excavation which will be crushed on site and used for the construction of the hall. Please click the link below for the visuals of the work site of Tiampo Memorial Hall.

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Guardian Angels Parishioners gave a solemn send off to Rev. Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza

On July 7th Guardian Angels Parishioners gave a solemn send off to Rev. Fr. Rudolf V. D'Souza OCD, after completing 8 years 11 months at the parish. Rev. Frs. Jerald D'Souza, John Alex Pinto, Fr. Alex Braganza, Fr. Melvin Pinto, Fr. Rajesh Madtha and Fr. Vincent D'Souza were present for the occasion. Solemn mass was celebrated at 4 pm and Fr. Rudolf preached during mass and thanked the parishioners for their support, friendship, love and warmth of fellowship. At the end of the Holy Eucharistic celebration the souvenir book of Guardian Angels Parish titled PEARL OF SPIRITUALITY was solemnly released by Helen Chua Tiampo and all parishioners were gifted with this book on Saturday and during all the masses on Sunday July 8th. This book contains a complete profile of the parish from its foundation till date. Special focus on the various upgrades that were accomplished during the time of Fr. Rudolf being Pastor have been exhaustively reported. In addition to this a complete report of all the projects realized in Canada and in India has been elaborately given with the appropriate photographs. Fr. Rudolf as he was very active in his preaching and writing, a section is dedicated to his mass media apostolate including an entire section on the kindle books recently uploaded on amazon. The last part of the book is dedicated to various parish activities, groups and apostolate with relevant photo albums. The book contains 222 pages and is well documented.

Please click the link below for more details on the book titled: PEARL OF SPIRITUALITY

ARTICLE: Pentecost-Year: B-Acts 2.1-11;

 

it’s a big world out there

PURPOSE

A wonderful serenity has taken possession of my entire soul, like these sweet mornings of spring which I enjoy with my whole heart. I am alone, and feel the charm of existence in this spot, which was created for the bliss of souls like mine. I am so happy, my dear friend, so absorbed in the exquisite sense of mere tranquil existence, that I neglect my talents.
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About Fr. Rudy

“Carmelite Spirituality & Catholic Theology”

  • Born in Madanthyar (Mangalore) on 27-7-1960 (South India) Karnataka State Inida;  Joined the Carmelites in 1973 - Studied 8th, 9th 10th in Paudua High ool; Pre-University Studies at Mysore from 1976-1978
  • Professed as Religious in 1980 in Podanur - Tamilnadu
  • Philosophical Studies  and Graduation in Kerala (Alwaye) 1980-1983
  • Theological Studies in Mangalore St. Joseph's Seminary 1983-1987
  • Completed M.A. in 1987 from Karnataka University - Bangalore
  • Ordained Priest on 24-2-1987
  • Master of Aspirants in Goa (Xellim) 1987-1989
  • Diploma in Yoga from the Yoga Institute Santa Cruz (Mumbai in 1989)
  • Masters Degree from Teresianum in 1992 (Rome) in Theology
  • 1991-1994 In charge of the Theology Students (Formator) in the International College at Rome.
  • Doctorate in Theology in 1995 (Gregorian University) Rome
  • Worked in Carmelite Spirituality Institute Mysore 1998-2001
  • Vicar Provincial (Assistant Provincial) 1999-2002
  • Assistant Parish Priest in St. Joseph's Church in Mira Road June 2001
  • Parish Priest of St. Joseph's Church Mira Road from June 2002 onwards.
  • Lectured in Italy, Singapore, Spain, Australia, Sri Lanka and in the USA on prayer and spiritual theology.
  • Offers courses and seminars in various seminaries, institutes of spirituality and in colleges and convents.
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